Post Retirement Issues Experienced By Athletes Essay

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The previous sections highlighted post-retirement issues experienced by athletes, (i.e., hardships, future concerns, identity issues, career planning decisions, etc.). To summarize, the literature has consistently supported that most athletes struggle with retirement (Warriner & Lavallee, 2008; McGannon & Mauws, 2000; & Reifsteck, 2011), and that athletes who are forced to retire may experience more transition-related difficulties than those who are not (Lavallee, Gordon, & Grove, 1997; & Heird & Stienfeldt, 2013). Since the average age of athletic retirement is 33 years old (Hadavi, 2011), most retired athletes are required to obtain a new occupation; however, most athletes have difficulty obtaining a job or feeling competent once they find a job (Stephan, Bilard, Ninot, & Deligniers, 2003). Furthermore, Stephan, Bilard, Ninot and Delignieres (2003) found that athletes revealed feelings of incompetence towards their new occupation that lasted as long as 8 months. Therefore, a review evaluating successful career planning models in general is necessary, as there are few post-retirement career-planning models for athletes in existence (Lavallee, 2005; Morris & Cherry, 2007; Stambulova, 2010). Prominent career planning models that will be discussed include Holland’s theory of vocational personalities, organizational investment, narrative career counseling, and social cognitive career theory.
Holland’s theory of vocational choice has become highly successful, since its

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