Trauma can be defined as an event or experience that hinders an individual’s ability to cope (Covington, 2008). These experiences have the power to alter biology and brain function, especially earlier on in life. Trauma can change an individual’s world-view, impacting their sense of self. This can lead to difficulties with self-regulation and higher incidences of impulsive behavior (Markoff et al., 2005). Often, individuals who have endured traumatic incidences turn to self-medication as a form of coping (De Bellis, 2002).
Trauma, a severely distressing or disturbing experience, can lead to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is a type of anxiety disorder that results from experiencing extremely emotional trauma or situation in which the individual felt at risk of injury or death. According to Putts (2014), both trauma and PTSD are going unrecognized in clients experiencing psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorders although a majority of clients diagnosed with psychotic disorders experience symptoms that meet the criteria for PTSD (p. 83). Putts (2014) believes the phenomenon could be a result of the challenge a clients in a psychotic state presents
The term “Psychological trauma” refers to damage wrought from a traumatic event, which that damages one’s ability to cope with stressors. “Trauma” is commonly defined as an exposure to a situation in which a person is confronted with an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to self or others’ physical well-being (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Specific types of client trauma frequently encountered by which therapists and other mental health workers frequently encounter in a clinical setting include sexual abuse, physical , or sexual assault, natural disasters such as earthquakes or tsunamis, domestic violence, and school or/and work related violence (James & Gilliland, 2001). Traumatic
I will be collaborating with The National Institute of Mental Health for the funding of the research project. The research will attempt to identify what factors determine whether someone with PTSD will respond well to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) intervention, aiming to develop more personalized, effective and efficient treatments. The mission of this project is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the way for prevention, recovery, and cure (National Institutes of Health, 2013).
Kar, Nilamadhab. “Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review.” Cibi.nlm.gov. National Center for Biotechnical Information, 2011. Web. 21 July, 2016.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can and usually is an extremely disruptive mental health disorder that, frequently diminishes a person’s overall quality of life, and usually follows a chronic, often lifelong, course.” (Kassam-Adams, & Winston, 2004, p. 407). Given the ubiquitous nature of threatening or catastrophic trauma, PTSD is becoming more and more common among our youth. “It may affect 10% of women and 5% of men at some stage in their lives.” (Kar, 2011, p.167). According to Kar, (2011), This is a large number of the population and depending upon the degree and nature in which the traumatic event has occurred, the rates of PTSD victims that have been reported could then approach 100%. (p.167). PTSD is described as having a multitude
As children go through life, they will come upon stressful situations and experiences. Many children will work through the challenges that life brings, build resilience and move forward, however, some children may experience more extreme traumatic events that can result in life difficulties due to serious trauma symptoms that are much harder to manage. Trauma-Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is an evidence based treatment model designed to help youth who have experienced a significantly traumatic life event. TF-CBT uses skills and strength based therapy to address symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety (Cohen et al, 2006). This research is an examination of trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy as a model of practice including the areas of history and development of the model, its relationship with other models of practice, considerations of appropriate populations, methods and components for treatment, effectiveness of the intervention and relevance for social work practice.
The Healthy Minds Through Therapy Project is a research project that will address the issues that are related to one form of psychiatric illness, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which manifests during or after combat experience. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH), there has been a rise in veterans with PSTD. PSTD is a serious public health concern, which compels the search for a design that will explain the entire situation or behavior, with the idea that it would eventually be a foreseeable and curable behavior. The research will deepen the comprehension of the condition and develop new and improved treatments. One form of treatment being used for PSTD is psychotherapy, with the specific treatment being known as Cognitive Behavioral
Psychologists define trauma as a deeply disturbing or upsetting event. But what is the fine line that separates an upsetting event from a traumatic one? This paper will help give a more in depth look into what can cause a traumatic event, understanding post-traumatic stress disorder and all the branches of mental illness that can occur, and every need to know basis on proper ways of coping and acceptance in order to recover. Through various methods of healthy coping, even and the compassion and support of family members and friends it is possible to mentally overcome a traumatic experience.
Trauma exposure is usually associated with soldiers. Trauma can happen anywhere and to anyone; it can happen to our friends, neighbors, relatives, or our children. Trauma can involve those directly involved or to those who listen to the stories. The resiliency of people is seen through our ability to recover from traumatic experiences such as war, famine, community violence, and interpersonal violence. Traumatic experiences do leave traces, whether on a large scale (like history and cultures) or close to home, on our families with dark secrets being passed down through the generations (van der Kolk, B., 2014). These trauma experiences leave traces on our emotions and cognitions, which show themselves as symptoms of stress, flashbacks,
(1999) early studies that “rape victims demonstrated comparable symptom reduction following cognitive behavioral intervention” (p1780). There are six treatment options within the cognitive behavioral framework that are recommended specifically for treating trauma. The treatment options are exposure therapy, systematic desensitization, stress inoculation, assertiveness training, biofeedback and relaxation training. Exposure therapy is often used to assist clients in confronting trauma reminders, mental images and affect in an effort to assist in their desensitization of those associations. Although exposure therapy is often cited as being the most effective of cognitive behavioral treatments, it might not be the best options for survivors of sexual trauma. One of the main criticisms is that exposure therapy does not directly teach coping strategies (Bryant & Harvey, 2000). Exposure therapy also has the potential to be to abrupt, intense, and only focus on anxiety change and not modifying irrational thoughts. This would mean that the negative thoughts, such as self-blame, that sexual trauma survivors often experiences are not being modified. Although their anxiety may be managed, they are still struggling internally with their cognitive distortions. Another criticism of exposure therapy symptom reduction is often only achieved after several sessions (Bryant & Harvey, 2000). Systematic desensitization might be a better treatment approach for sexual
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines trauma as a very difficult or unpleasant experience that causes someone to have mental or emotional problems usually for a long time (Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2015). From a medical perspective, trauma is described as severe damage to a person 's body. Trauma can be caused by multiple factors in a person life. Trauma could stem from a distressing experience of a physical or psychological nature. In recent years’ major natural disasters and acts of terrorism have become more prominent and devastating, creating long-lasting traumatic effects in individuals ' lives. Traumatic experiences can occur to anyone regardless of their culture, gender, age, social background or socio-economical status.
However, Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is a psychosocial treatment modality that is supported by evidence to be effective and appropriate for children and youth ages 3-18 years old “across racial and ethnic minorities” (Racco & Vis, 2015, p. 124). Research has found that TF-CBT makes significant improvement with symptoms of PTSD, depression, shame, behavior problems (Racco & Vis, 2015). However, some research argues that CBT does not address all levels of functioning affected by trauma exposure, such as neurological and physical functioning (Racco & Vis,
Mental illness is expressed in so many different ways around the world. By placing a label like “PTSD” on someone experiencing trauma can lead to potential misunderstanding. In order to bring about true recovery the western lens of perception must be cleared away and replaced with an all-encompassing focus.
Foa and her colleagues (2011) created prolonged Exposure (PE) for clients trying to overcome with PTSD that is based on the emotional processing therapy (Foa, 2011). PE treatment plan includes collecting of information associated to both the traumatic experience and the trauma survivor's responses to it, the teaching of breathing retraining techniques, education, the re-experiencing of the trauma in imagination, and in vivo exposure (Foa, 2011). When compared with CPT, PE is a 10-session treatment (60-90 minutes) that is centered on both in-vivo and imaginal exposure to the trauma memory and ensuing adaptation. PE reports that repetitive stimulation of the trauma memory allows the clients to integrate new, counteractive information about themself and their world. Additionally, homework assignments in PE allow the client to face safe situations, which were formerly resolute to be threatening based upon inaccurate post-traumatic beliefs (Foa,