The tactics used in World War I were radically different than that of previous wars. The majority of the war was fought in the trenches, and the war itself seemed to have no end. Due to this, the psychological impact of the war was unlike anything that had been seen before. During the early days of the war, the soldiers, on both sides, seemed to lack the dedication that would have been necessary to exterminate their enemy. However, as the war progressed, the desire to avenge their fallen comrades overcame their ethics and they began to kill their enemy indiscriminately. Surviving soldiers experienced a phenomenon that was, at that time, referred to as shell shock. Today we refer to this phenomenon as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. At this time, this psychological condition was misunderstood and the doctors lacked the training necessary to effectively treat this condition.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, this disorder develops after a person at any age has suffered a traumatic incident. Incidences can be caused by any type of event, triggering PTSD by personally experiencing a trauma (near death experience), being a witness to a trauma (vehicle accident) and those having to deal with the aftermath of a trauma (EMT, Police). These are just a few examples. PTSD can be rated in 3 Phases, 1) Acute Phase: if symptoms last less than 3 months. 2) Chronic Phase: if symptoms last more than 3 months. 3) Delayed-Onset: if the symptoms last 6 months after the trauma. An episodic attack (flashback) can last a couple of seconds, to as long as 30 minutes. This is caused when a person feels threatened while feeling helpless in a place of unknown environment.
Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was seen as a condition where people are shocked into fear of facing situations. Over the years, it was labeled as “Soldier’s Heart” in the post Civil war era and “Shell Shock” in the World War I. In a situation of ‘fight-or-flight’ an individual is triggered to escape from danger, however in PTSD this reaction is reversed in which case the individual feels a constant threat of danger even when there is no danger present.The person diagnosed with PTSD can be anyone from a child to an adult. Many causes of this disorder include traumatic events, knowing someone who is in danger, genetic factors, and more. Symptoms include
PTSD was first taken seriously when the Vietnam veterans returned from the war. Combat experience is the most commonly linked to this disorder. However, studies have shown that there are many different causes. These studies were applied to a wide variety of traumas that people have experienced in various horrific events. According to The National Institute of Mental Health, “about 4% of American adults ages 18-54 suffers from PTSD in a given year. These people have served in wars, have been raped or mugged, lived through natural disasters, terrorist attacks or car or plane crashes” (Mitchell). Anyone who experiences an unnerving situation is at risk for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. PTSD is seen as more of an archaic disorder in the
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively new diagnosis that was associated with survivors of war when it was first introduced. Its diagnosis was met largely with skepticism and dismissal by the public of the validity of the illness. PTSD was only widely accepted when it was included as a diagnosis in 1980 in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association. PTSD is a complex mental disorder that develops in response to exposure to a severe traumatic event that stems a cluster of symptoms. Being afflicted with the disorder is debilitating, disrupting an individual’s ability to function and perform the most basic tasks.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is commonly known by the acronym PTSD, can be caused by witnessing a terrifying and usually life-threatening event. It has also been previously known as “shell shock” or “battle syndrome” which was directly related to the onset due to person’s who have been in combat warfare. A more in-depth explanation can be explained as exposure to one or more traumatic events such as major stress, sexual assault, death of a loved one, warfare, natural disasters or other threats on a person’s life. Posttraumatic stress disorder can also not only affect the individual but the person’s family and friends. An example where it would be someone other than the directly affected individual would be emergency and first responder worker’s family or friends. Posttraumatic stress disorder can affect
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is brushing through the lives of individuals like a plague. It is an high risk illness that has negative impacts to a great degree, however once in a while goes untreated on account of the lack of awareness of specific people. Some believe it is a "fake" illness and is not a reality, but rather it is a reality, a dull reality that effects the lives of numerous people and even ruins groups and families. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is an emotional sickness. As per the Mayo Clinic (2006), "Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological well-being condition that is activated by a frightening occasion. Side effects may incorporate flashbacks, bad dreams and terrible anxiety, and wild thoughts or
Likenesses that identify with those of this disease can be found all through the story "The Things They Carried." Men and women of prior wars moreover mirrored the shared characteristics related to PTSD. In days of old, it was named "Shell Shock" and "Battle Fatigue." Because of studies directed by medical research organizations, e.g., The National Institute of Health (NIMH) we know and
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can produce emotional responses caused by the trauma endured during combat operations. It does not have to emerge immediately, but can actually happen weeks, months, or even years after the traumatic event. PTSD was often referred to as “combat fatigue” or “shell shock” until 1980 when it was given the name post-traumatic stress disorder. According to
(Rosenthal, J. Z., Grosswald, S., Ross, R., & Rosenthal, N. 2011) Veterans presenting with symptoms of PTSD will often engage in behaviors which can be dangerous for themselves, their families and socity. Lack of effective treatment can place the veteran at increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse or dependence, suicide ideations or attemps, and bouts violence toward others. (National Center for PTSD, 2010) PTSD can occur anytime anytime one has have been through the experience of a traumatic event. PTSD has been referred to by many names in past years such as post-combat disorders, shell shock, post-traumatic stress disorder, disordered or heavy heart, and war neurosis. In DSM-I PTSD was referred to as ‘‘gross stress reaction’’ this was the name of the diagnoises given to those individuals who had suffered combat exposure, and their minds had become psychologically altered. It was very helpful to have a name to the sympotms of military or civilian individual that had been exposed to combat exposure, ex-prisoners of war, and rape victims. This term had also been helpful in diagnosing Nazi Holocaust
During World War I, similar symptoms arose among the soldiers. Physicians began calling it “shell shock” or “combat fatigue.” Charles Myers, a psychologist serving at the front, wrote that shell shock occurs “where the tolerable or controllable limits of horror, fear, and anxiety are overstepped.”(Thomas 11) Many of the soldiers were considered to be crazy. They were evacuated, hospitalized, and often treated with electric shock treatments. Men who wandered away from the front on their own were branded deserters and set before a firing squad.(Thomas 12)
During World War I, thousands of British soldiers were diagnosed with “shell shock,” a condition which was thought to encompass both physical and psychological symptoms. The discovery of shell shock is typically considered to be an important catalyst in the gradual recognition of mental illnesses caused by combat. However, the characterizations of shell shock as an early discovery of post-traumatic stress disorder made by many historians are false. Shell shock should not be thought of as a credible wartime medical advancement, but as a false and primitive identification of war-trauma.
There are two forms of mental illness that are primarily associated with deployment, . they are post-traumatic stress disorder and Traumatic brain Injury. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a brain disorder that occurs after a traumatic event such as a car accident. This mental illness effects the psychological functions of the brain rather than the cognitive functions but can be caused by a physically traumatic event. The effect PTSD has on the brain causes people to have psychological flashbacks of an event when mental triggers similar to the traumatic event occur. When associated with war PTSD is commonly caused by death of a close friend or battalion member and can also be traced to isolation on the battlefield. Studies have shown that rates
The United States has been engaged in many wars going all the way back to the war of 1812 to the war on terrorism and between these wars many men were killed or wounded physically and mentally. In 1915 Charles Myers was a physician who also worked as a psychologist, he noticed that the men were returning from battle displaying involuntary shivering, crying, fearful, and loss of memory. Myers coined their condition as being shell-shocked, which was related to their exposure during combat. Many soldiers suffering from the condition of shell shock were deemed cowards and unfit for battle. Shell shock was treated with electric shocks and isolation. During the Vietnam war, psychologist were being trained to deal with military personnel dealing with combat related stress. These combat stress issues were identified as post-traumatic stress disorder and in 1980 it was noted in the DSM-III.
While PTSD was not yet defined it was clear that these symptoms were caused because of the disturbing things that had been seen. With no treatments available and a stigma that the effected persons were cowards or scared soldiers were often sent home with no supervision. During World War I physicians began calling it “shell shock” or “combat fatigue”, they believed that concussions caused by the impact of shells disrupting the brain caused the symptoms. Treatments included hospitalization and electric shock therapy. By World War II medical personnel noticed that soldiers that were engaged in longer more intense fighting had much higher levels or psychiatric disturbances and started using the term battle fatigue or combat exhaustion. Soldiers were being labeled as fearful and lacking in discipline and PTSD was still not fully recognized as a disorder, at this time treatment included barbiturates.