Post Traumatic Stress Trauma In Women

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A study conducted by Ullman, S., Townsend, S., Filipas, H., & Starzynski, L. (2007) evaluated the origin of posttraumatic stress disorder. The purpose of the study is to analyze how sexual assaults can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder. The study was composed of 1,084 women, who responded to mail surveys about unwanted sexual experiences. The first time the researchers sent out the surveys only 90 percent of women responded. The sample in this study decreased to 636 women after many surveys were thrown out due to missing data and not everyone responded. The researchers focused on women ages of 18 to 71 that had unwanted sexual experiences. Out of the 636 women, only 5% of them were never sexually assaulted (Ullman, 2007). These researchers…show more content…
The article states that some victims had experienced rape from the ages of 12 to 17. The researchers found that those who experience negative social reaction have a higher possibility of developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The researcher also found that the sexual trauma itself is not the only limiting factor that produces PTSD. The researchers used a structural equation to measure the variable that maintains posttraumatic stress disorder such as assault, global support, negative social reactions, avoidance, self-blame, and trauma (Ullman, 2007). Global support, coined by the researchers, questioned the participants the number of close friends they can trust – social contacts about their moral and religious belief such as families, friends, and acquaintances. Sexual assault victims occasionally report their case due to societal pressure and the fear of being judged or labeled. Victims often receive negative social reactions from their trauma, which discourages them from seeking help. The findings of the journal supported the idea that societal stigmatization of the victims contributed to self – blame (Ullman, 2007). Victims of sexual assault are discouraged from disclosing their traumatic event due to negative responses. The study examined how negative social reactions maintain posttraumatic…show more content…
Another limitation that arises in this study was survivors of sexual assault lacked social interaction amongst other individuals due to posttraumatic stress disorder. The decrease of global support resulted from negatives social interactions and reactions. The researchers found that women who experience sexual and negative social reactions have a higher possibility of being re-victimized (Ullman, 2007). It becomes a social norm to categorize victims of sexual assault with negative stereotypes. The victim’s alienation and societal stigma sustain their posttraumatic stress
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