To complete the worksheet, They also found that childhood sexual abuse was the most common trauma that lead to PTSD symptoms. These findings are in line with previous research on this topic or similar topics to this one. Although childhood sexual assault was the common, the authors noted that being stalked and being threatened produces the most severe symptoms of PTSD in the regression equation. Another finding that was consistent with previous research is that sudden death of a loved one was a traumatic even experienced more frequently by the participants. Even though this was a very diverse group in terms of ethnicity, it still found that men experienced robbery and stranger assault more frequently than women. These findings are also consistent with other research. The authors expressed that because the diagnoses were not based on research-based diagnoses but from clinical charts it may not be as reliable. They also noted that there may be some groups that were not represented in the study, such as those living with SMI in the inner
It can, and has, been In “The Invisible War,” it is noted that “women who have been raped in the military have a PTSD rate higher than men who have been in combat” (The Invisible War, 2012). The impact that military sexual assault has on victims is tremendous. Both physical and mental trauma are common, and they play a significant role in how victims of sexual assault are able to return to their daily lives.
"Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)", Retrieved May 27, 2013, from the WebMD Website: HYPERLINK "http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd" http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)" plays an important role in providing information with regard to the disorder and thus makes it possible for readers to gain a more complex understanding of the condition. The article primarily documents
Clients who have experiences rape in the past can deal with traumatic reposes after the event. Many of them have to deal with the effect of the rape, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clients may feel that they are held back because of the trauma that
Kayci Glass COUN 611-B11 Liberty University Abstract This paper reviews several articles that discuss the lasting effects that sexual abuse can have on a child into their adult years. The articles agree that victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) will most likely suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or experience revictimization. This paper will
Victims of crime with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an important topic to the field of psychology because it occurs in many victims. It is also important to the field because through research its causes and etiology are able to be discovered, treatments are able to be developed and tested for those with the disorder, and ways are found to prevent the disorder in victims. PTSD is a severe anxiety disorder and is recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The diagnostic criteria for PTSD include, “a history of exposure to a traumatic event meeting two criteria and symptoms from each of three symptom clusters: intrusive recollections, avoidant/numbing symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptoms,” (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Interest in PTSD in victims of crime is the reason for this literature. More interests include prevalence, differences in gender, and treatment options for those who are victims of crime experiencing trauma (sexual and non-sexual), as well as the measures taken to aide these victims. The following paper will discuss different aspects related to victims of crime with PTSD. The gender differences and treatment types for victims of crime with PTSD will be examined.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterized as a psychological condition in which a person has persistent mental and emotional distress after experiencing a traumatic event. In the United States alone, there is an 8.7% projected lifetime risk for developing PTSD by the age of seventy-five years old. Furthermore, rates of PTSD are commonly higher amongst people whose occupation increases their risk of traumatic exposure. Examples of occupations that increase the risk of traumatic exposure include law enforcement, military personnel, and firefighters. But it is important to note that the highest rates of PTSD are found among survivors of rape and captivity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
Sexual assault in the military against women is a very real and serious issue in the military. Sexual assault is more likely to cause PTSD than any other events throughout a woman’s lifetime. Not every woman who experiences traumatic events develop PTSD but preexisting factors can increase chances of developing
1. The woman believes that the violence was or is her fault. 2. The woman has an inability to place the responsibility for the violence elsewhere. 3. The woman fears for her life and/or her children 's lives. 4. The woman has an irrational belief that the abuser is omnipresent and omniscient. Women who are chronically battered has been categorized as a subclass of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is composed of the following symptoms: re-living the battering as if it were reoccurring even when it is not, efforts to circumvent the psychological effect of battering by avoiding activities, people, and emotions, hyperarousal or hypervigilance, disrupted interpersonal relationships, body image distortion or other somatic concerns, and sexuality
Literature Review Existing controlled examinations of intervention efficacy specific to only sexual assault and rape are presently minimal in comparison to intervention examinations of combination or other types of trauma (Regehr, Alaggia, Dennis, Pitts, & Saini, 2013). Psychotherapeutic interventions that fail to differentiate sexual assault and rape victims from other types of trauma victims may decrease the treatment effectiveness or inadvertently harm participants in this subgroup. Trauma associated from rape or sexual assault differs from other forms of trauma and treatment efficacy should be examined in this manner. Trauma from rape or sexual assault entail symptoms of PTSD, depression, suicidal ideations and sexual dysfunction. Individuals may also indicate feelings of vulnerability, loss of control, fear, shame, self-blame, societal blame and stigma (Russell & Davis, 2007; Regehr et al., 2013; Ullman &Peter-Hagene, 2014). This research proposal intends to explore the long term effectiveness of Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE) at reducing distress and trauma explicitly for adult victims of sexual assault and rape.
The American Psychiatric Association first introduced acute stress disorder (ASD) as a diagnosis in the DSM-IV in an attempt to describe the acute stress reactions that preceded posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although acute stress disorder is still a fairly new diagnosis, trauma and the psychological effects of trauma have a long history of being studied. Most of the works on trauma however, focus heavily on the effects of war trauma and its relation to PTSD. A subject area that has had little attention is sexual trauma, especially sexual trauma and the development of acute stress disorder. This is particularly concerning since it has been reported that 94% of rape survivors meet the criteria for acute stress disorder shortly after their
Actually occurs in greater numbers in the military than the sexual assault of women. State the problem: In the military, most female victims are sexually assaulted by male offenders; however male victims are sexually assaulted by roughly equal percentages of male and female offenders. Physical injuries and sexually transmitted infections can sometimes occur. While some sexual assaults can result in very serious injury, many involve minor or nonvisible injuries to victims. Psychological injuries may occur immediately following the assault or weeks. Psychological injuries may not resolve without treatment—victims can’t just “get over it.” Fear, irritability, confusion, and sleep disruption, may often occur during or immediately following the assault. In about one third of cases, victims may experience post-traumatic anxiety symptoms that interfere with their work, social or home life. Some victims may also experience serious depression or problems with alcohol and substances as they try to reduce the intensity of the problem the symptom. Also suicide can take place from emotion
Groups serve not only important to get an individual’s perspective on a situation, but they are equally important to allow individuals to see that they are not alone. Many people feel that they cannot connect with others because of their current problems, and it can be encouraging to hear others have similar circumstances. Unfortunately, at times, individuals can find it difficult to connect because of a fear of rejection and intolerance towards certain populations and is often the case for male rape survivors. While doing research on a particular group, I found limited research for males who are survivors of rape. Despite the current advance in multicultural counseling males who are survivors of rape, the population remains silent and
To determine which areas of the participants’ lives were affected by their experience(s) of sexual abuse, researchers utilized interview probes. Participants were asked in the interviews to recall the sexual abuse they endured in childhood and to answer questions about their family background, the sexual abuse, and the long-term effects of the sexual abuse. Professionals who referred participants to the study were consulted to check the validity of victim’s responses; only two professionals did not respond. Researchers analyzed the audiotaped and transcribed interviews to identify themes, and then regrouped parts of each interview according to their index reference. Data was condensed into charts in order to compare and contrast and search for patterns among participants’ experiences.
Ullman (2007) and Ullman and Filipas (2005) declared that the negative social reactions that others had toward adults that were sexually abused are positively associated with their PTSD symptoms. This was established after exploring and learning about abuse severity, the self-blame that survivors endure, and the coping mechanisms of the survivors. Many people fail to realize that everyone that interact with those who suffer with PTSD, whether it be within the neighborhood or community, school, or home, are affected.