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The U.S. had emerged as the world's wealthiest and most powerful country- untouched from the horrific destruction of World War 2. The dollar was the strongest currency and foreigners flocked to invest in American companies and to buy U.S. government bonds. They played a leading economic role, as other nations needed American goods and services; transforming life in the United States itself. Many Americans prospered in the world's wealthiest economy, although some segments of the population were left to struggle. As Americans became more affluent, many moved from the cities to the suburbs and also to the states in the Southern and Southwestern parts of the country- where jobs were becoming more plentiful than in the
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This same aid was offered to the Soviet Union and its dependent states, however, it was declined by Stalin and he forbade the Eastern European countries to accept.
Although the United States had prospered after World War 2, all Americans did not benefit equally from this prosperity; the promise of equality and opportunity had not yet been fulfilled for ethnic minorities and women. Many states denied equality to African Americans and other ethnic minority groups, enforcing legal segregation in education and housing, as well as discrimination in jobs and voting. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court made a land marking ruling, declaring segregated schools unconstitutional; and in 1956, the African American preacher- Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.- led the civil rights movement joined by Americans of all races- demanding equality. In 1965, the Civil Rights Act was passed; outlawing segregation. The women’s' rights movement also won laws banning discrimination against women.

After World War 2, Italy was rapidly transformed from an agriculture based economy into one of the world’s most industrialized nations. It also became a leading country in world trade and exports.
At the end of World War 2, Italy was still a kingdom but the country had suffered greatly; with forces allied to the west and fascist units allied to Germany (fighting on Italian soil since 1943), there was deep division
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