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Postmenopausal Bleeding Research Papers

Decent Essays
Post menopausal bleeding: Post-menopausal bleeding has been defined as vaginal bleeding occurring at least 6 months after complete cessation of periods in women not taking hormonal replacement therapy(HRT), or non-cyclic vaginal bleeding occurring in post-menopausal women who are receiving HRT.2 Postmenopausal bleeding can be worrisome as sometimes it is the first sign of endometrial carcinoma . There are many benign and malignant causes of post menopausal bleeding. The common benign causes include atrophic endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyp and malignant causes include endometrial carcinoma, cervical cancer and uterine leiomyosarcoma 36
ENDOMETRIAL THICKNESS:
The normal postmenopausal endometrium is thin and uniform with a has basalis layer. This layer is less than 1 mm
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47,49,50
POWER DOPPLER ULTRASOUND FACTORS : Increased angiogenesis, i.e. the formation of new capillaries, and increased microvascular density in the tissue are signs of a tumour 51. Irregular branching of vessels 46 , an increased number of vessels 31, high colour content indicates an increased risk of endometrial cancer 45
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DOPPLER ULTRASOUND52
Gray-scale display relies on the amplitude of the backscattered ultrasound signal and the returning echoes that can be used to evaluate the motion of moving targets. If high frequency sound impinges on a stationary interface, the reflected ultrasound and the transmitted sound have essentially the same
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