Postpartum Depression And Parent Child Relationships

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Research Proposal: Postpartum Depression and Parent Child Relationships Adriana Tatoyan University of San Francisco May 11, 2016 Introduction Postpartum Depression Depression is a major public health problem that is twice as common in women as men during the childbearing years. Postpartum depression is defined as an episode of non-psychotic depression according to standardized diagnostic criteria with onset within 1 year of childbirth (Stewart D., et. al, 2003, p. 4). For women aged 15 to 44 years around the world, Postpartum Depression is second to HIV/AIDS, in terms of total disability (World Health Organization, 2001). Depression has a profound impact on parameters of interpersonal behavior. Post-Partum depression…show more content…
42). The stress of caring for a newborn or even the circumstances surrounding labor and delivery may cause the first symptoms of PPD. Initial stressors related to labor, delivery, and bringing the baby home give way to new triggers (Dieta et al., 2007, 1516). Infant temperament can intensify or minimize a new mother’s PPD symptoms depending on the child’s sleep patterns, frequency of crying, being easygoing or demanding, and whether or not baby is socially reinforcing with smiles and coos (Perfetti et al., 2004, p. 57). Increasing guilt, overwhelmed feelings by child care responsibilities, and fear of being unable to cope can cause the mother to show less affection to her baby, and be less responsive to his cries (Kabir, 2006, p. 698). The infants in turn tend to be fussier and distant making less positive facial expressions and vocalizations (Beck C., 2006, p. 42). Hostile effects on the child continue throughout the first year after birth, but PPD places children of all ages at risk for impaired cognitive and emotional development as well as psychopathology (Beck C., 2006, p. 42). There are many different implications for why infants of mothers with PPD would be at risk for developing the inability for emotional regulation and healthy attachment relationships. Infants that fail to develop these abilities exhibit insecure attachments to their mothers (Peindl et al., 2004, p. 41-42). Due to the insecure attachment, they will
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