Often the time after birth is a filled with joy and happiness due to the arrival of a new baby. However, for some mothers the birth of a baby leads to some complicated feelings that are unexpected. Up to 85% of postpartum woman experience a mild depression called “baby blues” (Lowdermilk, Perry, Cashion, & Alden, 2012). Though baby blues is hard on these mothers, another form of depression, postpartum depression, can be even more debilitating to postpartum woman. Postpartum depression affects about 15% (Lowdermilk et al., 2012) of postpartum woman. This disorder is not only distressing to the mother but to the whole family unit. This is why it is important for the nurse to not only recognize the signs and symptoms of a mother with postpartum depression, but also hopefully provide preventative care for the benefit of everyone involved.
Postpartum depression is one of the most common complications of childbearing with an estimated prevalence of 19.2% in the first three months after delivery (1). Depressive episodes (major and mild) may be experienced by approximately half of women during the first postpartum year (1). Characterized by depressed mood, loss of pleasure or interest in daily activities, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, irritability, sleep and eating disturbances (2), its etiology is multi-faceted and complex (3;4).
The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 20 people suffer from depression (2014). Although widely recognized and somewhat easy to diagnose, depression is an ignored and almost hidden, disease. In women, the statistics are especially grim for those who are pregnant or were recently pregnant. A great number of women suffer from postpartum depression; an illness which is often overlooked, misdiagnosed and untreated. Postpartum depression (PPD) has been defined as an emotional disorder that occurs in an estimated 10-15% of all women after childbirth (Liberto, 2010). Postpartum depression not only impacts the mother, but can cause long-term psychological challenges for the baby and create emotional turmoil for all family members.
This journal article focuses on postpartum depression and how it differentiates from other disorders. This paticuarl article however focuses on defining the different types of depression within this catagorey and looks into clinical involvement as well as recognsisng risk elements and sysmtoms that allow it to be characterized from other mood and anxiety disorders. Beck (2006) finds that persons who where most at risk of this disorder most commently had stressful lives, with a history of mental illness. This article also concludes that postpartum depression can lead into server physosi, which is in need of immediate intervention and that this mental state can lead women to be dangerous to themselves of there children and clearly states that they should never be left alone. Overall this article is paticually usuful as a researcher as it clearly describes the differences in distinguishing the types of depression as well as the servierty of postpartum depression which can be underrecognsied.
Postpartum Depression also referred to as “the baby blues” is depression that is suffered by a mother following the birth of her child that typically arises from the combination of hormonal changes and fatigue, as well as the psychological adjustment to becoming a mother. Most mothers will feel depressed or anxious after the birth of their child, however it turns into postpartum depression when is lasts longer than two weeks, and if treatment is not sought after a month, it could continue to worsen severely.
Postpartum depression is a mood disorder in females that is known to be present within the 4 to 6 weeks after childbirth (Battle et al). This condition is the most common complication after childbirth (Mosses-Kolko et al.,2009).Studies have shown predictors which lead to postpartum depression such as maternal childhood maltreatment and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)in pregnancy (Seng 2013).A variety of factors exist among certain subgroups of women that may lead to postpartum depression. Postpartum depression affects approximately “one out of eight of the more than four million women who give birth in the United States every year”(Kruse et al. 2013a). The estimation of PPD in the US, UK, and Australia is from 7% to 20 % (Fitelson
The birth of a child can be a very exciting time in a mother's life, but sometime the feeling of excitement can be overshadowed by extreme mood swings, uncontrollable crying, the feeling of sadness, the loss of appetite, feeling angry followed by anxiety and restlessness. These are all symptoms of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a severe mental disorder that some time will occur after giving birth or after being pregnant. According to research postpartum depression usually will occur within a year after giving birth. According to the Centers for Disease Control, 11 to 20% of women who give birth each year have postpartum depression symptoms. ). Although researchers have not been able to determine one main
Mothers who have brought into this world a blessing have been preparing themselves for a big change in their life. They have been learning and educating themselves about how to be a good mother. Many mothers find it really hard to transition from being an independent woman without children to becoming a mother (Corrigan, Kwasky, & Groh, 2015). Adapting to motherhood can be a drastic change, and usually creates challenges that lead to feeling overwhelmed (Leger & Letourneau, 2015). When a newly mother begins experiencing stress or becomes emotional then there can be a possibility that they can encounter Postpartum Depression (Leger et al., 2015). Postpartum depression can be seen and experienced in many different ways, it all varies on every mother (Corrigan et al., 2015). Many different mental health issues can be seen including baby blues, postpartum depression, postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the most serious, postpartum psychosis (Tam & Leslie, 2001).
The postpartum period is about going through change and transition from a woman to a new mother. This is a time where mothers restore muscle tone and connective tissue in the body after the birth of the baby. Although there is a dramatic change during the postpartum period, women’s body is nonetheless not fully stored to pre-pregnant physiology until about 6 months post-delivery (Osailan, 6). At this time, women need to receive special health and social support to prevent problems such as postpartum depression. During this period, culture plays a major role in the way a woman perceives and prepares for her birthing experience. In fact, the notions of birth and postnatal care vary considerably with cultural beliefs and traditional practices. Each culture has its own values, beliefs and practices related to pregnancy and birth (Osailan,1). In the United States, after a short hospital stay, moms and babies are sent home because it is expected for mothers to heal within 42 days after giving birth. Whereas in other societies like Mexico, the postpartum recovery is active long enough until the new mother is fully healed (Brenhouse). In the article, “Why Are America’s Postpartum Practices So Rough on New Mothers?” by Hilary Brenhouse, the author states, “With these rituals comes an acknowledgment, familial and federal, that the woman needs relief more at this time than at any other—especially if she has a career to return to—and that it takes weeks, sometimes months, to properly
According to Minuchin (1985), six basic principles outline the Family Systems theory. Each principle describes the function in which a family and its subsystems operate and the inextricable relationships within the system. The first principle of Minuchin’s (1985) theory implies that each member develops and is enveloped within the family unit, while the second principle states that there is a continuous loop in which each member feeds the behaviours of another. Thirdly, family systems have homeostatic elements which restore the family back to its equilibrium when disarrayed (Minuchin, 1985).
Ultimately, Charlotte Perkins Gilman incorporates her own personal experiences with postpartum depression into a narrative which shows broad implications of women, how society portrays and treats them in many ways and how those women respond to those treatments.
Depression is a common problem during and after pregnancy; about thirteen percent of pregnant women and new mothers have depression (Women’s Health, par. 2). According to the National Institute of Mental Health, postpartum depression is defined as a mood disorder that can affect women after childbirth (National Institute of Mental Health, par. 2). Even though the mothers that suffer from postpartum depression often think it is their fault, postpartum depression can happen to any mother. This is because it is a disorder that is out of their control, it is common among many mothers and it is usually caused by a hormonal imbalance.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, women were treated in a far different manner than they are in today’s time. Their role as a woman and the way they were treated in the medical department has been a major change from then to now. In some cases, the role that women were expected to partake in could have been the cause of depression and many other mental illnesses. Many factors will support this claim due to the roles that were enforced on women in the early 1900’s. For many women in this time period, were expected to be stay at home mothers and take care of the children. With the lack of individual freedom, women would have become tired of their roles and desired for more. In “The Yellow Wallpaper,” the narrator was fixed in her own
Postpartum depression has been around for centuries, it was recognized as early as 1500 B.C. However, instead of seeing it as a medical issues it was viewed as witch craft or victims of witch craft. Later on in the 1920s one theory suggested these mood disorders were caused from suppressed homosexuality or incestuous urges. Postpartum depression was not even taught in schools because people believed that it was impossible for a pregnant woman to be depressed because pregnancy/birth of a child was a joyous occasion. Now fast forward to present day and postpartum depression is well known and is taken very seriously. Recent studies show that within the first year of giving birth one in five woman have experienced postpartum depression.
When a woman gives birth to a child, it can be one of the most joyous and exciting moments in her life, yet it can also be difficult and stressful. There are a range of emotional, behavioral, and physical changes that occur shortly after a woman gives birth. These changes are common; however, many women who experience these emotions may have postpartum depression, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Many women require medical treatment. Although all causes of postpartum depression are unknown, there are many factors that can put a woman at risk. This essay provides an overview of postpartum depression, the impact it has on the individual client, the newborn, and the family, the physical and mental assessment