The postpartum period is about going through change and transition from a woman to a new mother. This is a time where mothers restore muscle tone and connective tissue in the body after the birth of the baby. Although there is a dramatic change during the postpartum period, women’s body
Postpartum depression is one of the most commons disorders in the early few weeks of child birth. According to the American Psychology Association almost 1 in 7 women are Likely to inherit the disorder. Postpartum depression is caused by the rapid drop of estrogen and progestrone hormone following the birth
Introduction Postpartum depression is one of the most common complications of childbearing with an estimated prevalence of 19.2% in the first three months after delivery (1). Depressive episodes (major and mild) may be experienced by approximately half of women during the first postpartum year (1). Characterized by depressed mood, loss of pleasure or interest in daily activities, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, irritability, sleep and eating disturbances (2), its etiology is multi-faceted and complex (3;4).
Often the time after birth is a filled with joy and happiness due to the arrival of a new baby. However, for some mothers the birth of a baby leads to some complicated feelings that are unexpected. Up to 85% of postpartum woman experience a mild depression called “baby blues” (Lowdermilk, Perry, Cashion, & Alden, 2012). Though baby blues is hard on these mothers, another form of depression, postpartum depression, can be even more debilitating to postpartum woman. Postpartum depression affects about 15% (Lowdermilk et al., 2012) of postpartum woman. This disorder is not only distressing to the mother but to the whole family unit. This is why it is important for the nurse to not only recognize the signs and symptoms of a mother with postpartum depression, but also hopefully provide preventative care for the benefit of everyone involved.
Postpartum psychiatric disorders, particularly depression, has become the most underdiagnosed complication in the United States. It can lead to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development (Earls, 2010). Over 400,000 infants are born to mothers that are depressed. One of 7 new mothers (14.5%) experience depressive episodes that impair maternal role function. An episode of major or minor depression that occurs during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth is called perinatal or postpartum depression (Wisner, Chambers & Sit, 2006). Mothers with postpartum depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that may make it difficult for them to complete daily care activities for themselves or for others (Postpartum Depression). The six stages of postpartum are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance and PTSD. These stages may affect any women regardless of age, race, ethnicity, or economic status. However only a physician can diagnose a woman with postpartum depression. It does not occur because of something a mother does or does not do, it’s a combination of physical and emotional factors. After childbirth, the levels of hormones in a woman’s body quickly drop; which may lead to chemical changes in her brain (Postpartum Depression). Unbalanced hormones may trigger mood swings.
Postpartum depression, which is the most prevalent of all maternal depressive disorders, is said to be the hidden epidemic of the 21st century. (1) Despite its high prevalence rate of 10-15% and increased incidence, postpartum depression often goes undetected, and thus untreated. (2) Nearly 50% of postpartum depression cases are untreated. As a result, these cases are put at a high risk of being exposed to the severe and progressive nature of their depressive disorder. (3) In other words, the health conditions of untreated postpartum depression cases worsen and progress to one of their utmost stages, and they are: postpartum obsessive compulsive disorder, postpartum panic disorder, postpartum post traumatic stress, and postpartum psychosis.
The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 20 people suffer from depression (2014). Although widely recognized and somewhat easy to diagnose, depression is an ignored and almost hidden, disease. In women, the statistics are especially grim for those who are pregnant or were recently pregnant. A great number
Postpartum Depression also referred to as “the baby blues” is depression that is suffered by a mother following the birth of her child that typically arises from the combination of hormonal changes and fatigue, as well as the psychological adjustment to becoming a mother. Most mothers will feel depressed or anxious after the birth of their child, however it turns into postpartum depression when is lasts longer than two weeks, and if treatment is not sought after a month, it could continue to worsen severely.
70 to 80 percent of women who have given birth experience what is know as “Baby blues,” (Piotrowski & Benson, 2015). These are mild symptoms of depression and usually go away within two weeks after giving birth. However, the symptoms of unspecified depressive disorder with peripartum onset also known as postpartum depression (PPD) can be more intense and last significantly longer than the “baby blues.” According to the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association [APA] 2013), postpartum depression occurs during pregnancy or in the 4 weeks following delivery. Postpartum depression has symptoms that cause clinically significant distress or impairment in the new mothers life and can include the inability to take care of the newborn or herself. The
Mental health has become an important factor in a persons well-being and is recognized as having the same importance as physical health. The mental health of a person can determine how they act in society. Their mood and behavior can be severely affected in ways that family or friends don’t understand. A mood disorder that has a significant affect on family members is called postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that occurs in women who have given birth a few weeks prior. This mood disorder is diagnosed after two months or even longer, new mother can be continuously sad throughout the day and feel as though not having a connection with their baby. Doctors are not able to know which mother will have postpartum depression
Postpartum Depression vs Postpartum Psychosis 1. Postpartum Depression vs Postpartum Psychosis 2. Faith Williams 3. Comp 1 4. Abstract Ongoing sleep deprivation, the intense experience of birth, radical role shifts, and hormonal fluctuations all collide to produce mood swings, irritability, and feelings of being overwhelmed in the majority of mothers. While as many as
Just like women, men are affected by postpartum depression. Postpartum depression also called postnatal depression (PPD) is a depression that occur in a women after she gave birth but also in men after 3-6 weeks. Symptoms such as fatigue, exhaustion, sadness, memory loss and others may go unrecognized until it compromised the father’s daily functioning. From experience, I can say that “Dads get postpartum depression, too” is accurate about postpartum in fathers. Depression is unrelated to childbirth while PPD occurs after the birth of a baby.
Postpartum Depression among Teenage Mothers Introduction Postpartum depression is a category of depression that can occur when a mother has a baby. The symptoms of postpartum depression are similar to the symptoms of major depression. Postpartum depression is often experienced during the first month that the baby is born (Bolyn 2017). Some women experience postpartum depression during pregnancy (Bolyn 2017). A few symptoms of postpartum depression are excessive crying, loss of appetite, feelings of hopelessness, and difficulty concentrating (Bolyn 2017). Teen pregnancy contributes to a small percentage of women who are diagnosed with postpartum depression (Bolyn 2017). A pregnant woman is considered a teen mom if she is from the ages of
Postpartum Depression and its Effect on the Family Experience Abstract There is need for people to understand what postpartum depression is and learn how to deal efficiently and effectively with it. According to the national health science (NHS), postpartum depression is defined as a depression that normally occurs after childbirth. To help deal with this issue, a lot of investment has been made for public sensitization on how to handle the issue. However, this effort of public sensitization may yield little results because many people view this problem as a problem of others. This literature review therefore focused on trying to understand the various issues surrounding or leading to postpartum depression and the effects that it has on family experience, starting from the mother, the child, the father and the whole society in general. The study was majorly centered on trying to understand to what extent the depression either directly or indirectly affects the mother, the father and the whole society, in general. The objective of this literature review was to examine and decode a considerable number of relevant articles that had researched and arrived at conclusions that related to postpartum depression. After rigorous review of the literature, it was found out that postpartum depression had a direct effect on the family experience. The findings show how exactly postpartum depression affects the mother, the father/family, the child and the whole society in general. This
Literature Review Postpartum Depression Mothers who have brought into this world a blessing have been preparing themselves for a big change in their life. They have been learning and educating themselves about how to be a good mother. Many mothers find it really hard to transition from being an independent woman without children to becoming a mother (Corrigan, Kwasky, & Groh, 2015). Adapting to motherhood can be a drastic change, and usually creates challenges that lead to feeling overwhelmed (Leger & Letourneau, 2015). When a newly mother begins experiencing stress or becomes emotional then there can be a possibility that they can encounter Postpartum Depression (Leger et al., 2015). Postpartum depression can be seen and experienced in many different ways, it all varies on every mother (Corrigan et al., 2015). Many different mental health issues can be seen including baby blues, postpartum depression, postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the most serious, postpartum psychosis (Tam & Leslie, 2001).