Potential Health Risks from Inappropriate Prescription of ACE Inhibitors

1186 Words 5 Pages
Learning Goals
1) Locate where in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway ACE inhibitors act
2) Identify commonly prescribed antihypertensive medication by primary care physicians
3) List 3 possible side effects from inappropriate ACE inhibitor prescription
4) Suggest possible regulations of ACE inhibitor use for primary care physicians and alternative treatment plans for patients

Introduction
Cardiac related diseases account for over 56 million annual deaths worldwide.1 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and is increasing in occurrence in developing nations.1 The prevalence of CVD increases with age.1 The mean level of blood pressure, used to diagnose CVD, is higher in
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Learning Goals
1) Locate where in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway ACE inhibitors act
2) Identify commonly prescribed antihypertensive medication by primary care physicians
3) List 3 possible side effects from inappropriate ACE inhibitor prescription
4) Suggest possible regulations of ACE inhibitor use for primary care physicians and alternative treatment plans for patients

Introduction
Cardiac related diseases account for over 56 million annual deaths worldwide.1 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and is increasing in occurrence in developing nations.1 The prevalence of CVD increases with age.1 The mean level of blood pressure, used to diagnose CVD, is higher in men than in women.1 This factor dwindles with age, as an equal proportion of males and females with heart disease are seen around the sixth decade.1 One of the most common primary diagnoses in the United States is hypertension.2 The current recommended diagnosis for hypertension is a systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg.2 Using these guidelines, the overall prevalence of hypertension worldwide is around 20-25%.1
The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) in treating cardiac related diseases has been increasing.1 Randomized trials support that ACEI and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) significantly lower blood pressure.2 ACEI prevent the function of angiotensin converting
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