Poultry, The, And Its Effect On The Gut And Adaptive Immune Activity ( Galt ) Essay

1913 Words Nov 11th, 2016 8 Pages
poultry, the prebiotics are able to modulate the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) due to the lactic action that stimulated the innate and adaptive immune activity (Janardhana et al., 2009; Dankowiakowska et al., 2013), It has also been shown that dietary prebiotics supplementation reduced the population of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the large intestine and cecum of the chickens (Bogusławska-Tryk et al., 2012).
1.2 Fructooligosaccharide (FOS)
1.2.1 An overview of FOS The fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are one of the most popular prebiotic supplements available, consisting of several (average 5) fructosyl residues that linked by ß (2, 1) glycosidic bond to a terminal glucose moiety (Hidaka and Hirayama, 1991; Barry et al., 2009; Bogusławska-Tryk et al., 2012). The ß (2, 1) glycosidic bond is resistant to be broken down by endogenous digestive enzymes of the monogastric animals, and thus become available for intestinal microbiota fermentation and resulting in increased bifidobacteria population, lowered gut pH, production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as well as suppression of putrefactive substances (Hidaka and Hirayama, 1991; Swiatkiewicz et al., 2011; Bogusławska-Tryk et al., 2012). Fructooligosaccharides can be naturally extracted from plant sources such as chicory root, onion, asparagus, beet, edible burdock, wheat, bananas and cane sugar (Hidaka and Hirayama, 1991; Williams et al., 2008). They…

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