Kohn’s first reason is that praise is used to manipulate the children. Kohn says that praise is “sugar-coated control” (Kohn, 110, 2001) adults use to pressure their child into good behavior. Kohn’s second reason is that praising children creates “praise junkies” (Kohn, 111, 2001). He believes that the child will no longer perform an activity for the proper reasons, instead of doing a difficult task to be able to say that they could their motives altered to only desire the
Following the introduction of the whole school behaviour policy, it was also made compulsory for schools to include a system of rewards and sanctions (Elton, 1989, Steer, 2005; DFE, 2014; Payne, 2015). Within school X it was found that this system was based on the behaviourist principles of Skinners (1974) theory. The use of rewards and sanctions in school X consisted of positively reinforcing desirable behaviours and correcting negative behaviour through sanctions. The behavioural theory underlines that by reinforcing a particular behaviour, children will repeat it as they begin to associate rewards with a particular behaviour (Skinner, 1974; Morgan, 2009; Rogers, 2011a). For example it was observed that when a child was positively praised for helping others, the teacher would reward the child by awarding a dojo. A dojo is used as a form of praise which amounts to a score at the end of the week based on how many dojos a child receives. This will then feed on to the merit card and sticker system enabling children to be rewarded by prizes. Consequently children were able to make associations between the desired behaviour and its outcome. This is therefore identified as a form of extrinsic motivation (Roffey and O’ Reirdan, 2001; Payne, 2015).
Since there is a limited amount of evidence provided on ability-based praise and effort-based praise, research studies have mixed results on their findings. For example, children who were praised for ability in mathematics did better in math compare to children praised for their effort. Likewise, it was found that boys did better as a result of ability-based praise and that girls did better as a result of effort-based praise both in competency and in motivation. It appears that little consistency is to be found in the existing literature (Weaver et al.,
This paper discusses the differences between negative and positive forms of reinforcement. It also examines negative and positive forms of punishment. Further, it investigates how effective each type is in changing the behaviors of students. By comparing the effectiveness of punishment and reinforcement, hopefully psychologists and educators can find the best way to change negative behaviors both in and out of the classroom.
At Shelf School we praise and reward children for appropriate behaviour in a variety of ways:
Rewards and praise will be given wherever possible for both work and behaviour to encourage a positive attitude to learning.
It is important that the adult influences of the classroom recognise and praise the positive behaviour of individual pupils – especially those who struggle to maintain good behaviour and tend to be told off more than others. It is also essential to praise constant good behaviour (from pupils who never misbehave) to avoid the development inappropriate behaviour. Children respond to all kinds of positive praise. In my setting, the class teacher and LSA’s often add positive words like ‘fantastic’, ‘brilliant’ or ‘well done’ when acknowledging their input towards the class. We also use house tokens to
Regardless of age, we all like to be noticed and praised for something good that we have done. Research has shown that in order to balance out a negative, we need to be given 6 positives. It is important therefore, to recognise and reward positive behaviour, especially for those pupils who perhaps need to be reprimanded more than others. Whilst it can be easier to simply react to the negative aspects of a child’s behaviour with “don’t do this, don’t do that”, it is also really important to point out what they are doing well, whether it’s sitting nicely, listening well, joining in, following instructions, etc. It is also important not to forget those children who always behave appropriately and openly praise them too. In the 1940’s BF
This is because with a growth mindset, students understand their abilities can grow. “Just the word ‘yet’... we’re finding, gives kids greater confidence,” Dweck explains. Meanwhile, students praised for grades and such were found to act negatively towards the future tests. By, “...praising the process that kids engage in, their effort, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance, their improvement… this process praise creates kids who are hardy and resilient” (Dweck, 7). As a child grows up and completes school, any and every word they are told impacts their education and their career after school. By not praising students correctly, we are actually hurting these students because they aren’t growing up with the right mindset. Students are more likely to cheat on tests and have a negative outlook on
Praise is not bad, however, Bronson suggests that rather than praising students with this “blanket praise” they should be given specific praise on individual attributes. By offering praise
At this young age, it is recommended that criterion specific rewards be used to motivate Doug and increase the frequency of positive behaviors in the classroom (Curran & the IRIS Center, 2003). Criterion specific rewards are incentives that are customized to individual students and based on what motivates them (Curran & the IRIS Center, 2003). Initially, it is necessary to identify what motivates the student and proceed to utilize that information to create
In my lesson plan 3, I had learned to add praising to the whole class as they are participating in class and following the directions with minimum teacher’s instructions. On a daily basis when I am with the students,
The praise would come because students were utilizing all their materials, helping each other, and answering questions correctly. These are examples of secondary reinforcers and were more apparent in the classroom; however, there was evidence of a primary reinforcer like security and warmth. Julie would greet the students everyday and provided a warm environment. There were some students that needed more attention than others and Julie was sure to give it to them. The reinforcement was also helpful when it came to motivating the students because they felt secure in this environment and because there was secondary reinforcement such as praise, they were ready to learn and participate. Students can use this reinforcement to create their own motivation. John Marshall Reeve (2013) writes,
Have you ever wondered how praise can be bad? If how you praising your student and/ or child is affecting them in a good or bad way? I "The Perils and Promises of Praise" Carol S. Dweck made a lot of points in her research. Stuff that you would never think about. Things that you would not think that it had a bad affect on them. If you praise intelligence it can lead students to believe that they were born smart. Students with a fixed mindset care most about if the will be judged: smart or not smart(7). They also reject opportunities to learn if they make a mistake(7). Students with a growth mindset care about learning(8). They will correct their mistakes(8). They will find new learning styles if they do not understand the topic or subject they
1. I agree process praise encourage and motivate children to work hard learn, explore and have a healthy outlook on their abilities and praise that is sincere and conveys realistic expectations can promote a child's self-motivation. 2. I read The Flip Side of praise and I disagree with the article saying that praise is a way to manipulate children to comply with adult wishes. 3. I will practice process praise because I read in the article that process praise shown to encourage children to develop a flexible mindset comfront their weaknesses and take on challenges.