From: Romesh Dutt, The Economic History of India Under Early British Rule Englishmen…have given the people of India the greatest human blessing – peace. They have introduced Western education. This has brought an ancient and civilized nation in touch with modern thought, modern sciences and modern life. They have built an administration that is strong and efficient. They have framed wise laws and have established courts of justice.
According to The National Policy of Education based on recommendations made by Kothari commission “ the energic development of the indian languages and literature is sine qua non for the eduactional and cultural development. Unless it is done, the creative energies of the people will not be released ,standard of education will not improve,knowledge will not spread to the people ,the gap between the intelligentsia will remain , if not widen further.” (p-39).
Nowadays, English is the global and technology language. English play an important role in the world and it works like a passport because it has improved a lot and became the language of technology and the language of internationals. As result, most of people developed based on English language through global businesses. In all over the world there are many opportunities that changes people life to make it better and its English language. There many non- English speaking countries that uses English as a second language and they teach subjects like science and mathematics and etc. in English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) to provide more opportunity for their development.
To promote the loyalty of their newly won Indian subjects, the British crown passed the English Education Act of 1835, the act required that all education paid by British funds to be taught in English. The act also took measures to promote the English as the language of higher education, especially in the realms of administration and law. Even if this act was started before the Victorian era, it was supported by the children of Victoria. For example in 1844 by the approval of the crown, English became the official language of India and to work for public employment mastery of the language was required. By forcing the children of India to learn English over their natural tongues, England was subverting Indian culture with their own. After all, language is the heart of a culture and everything involved in a culture is based on verbiage and literature, written or oral. Therefore the best way to change a culture of a people is to change their language and literature. Even in 21st century, English remains one of the most used language on the Indian subcontinent. Seeing the
Being under the British rule, English language was used as a language of education and a medium of expression among Indians. It is the Indian writing in English which gave the voice of Indian culture to the outside world. India’s Linguistic diversity adds to the richness of Indian culture and every region of India has a highly developed literary tradition with excellent writers of national, and a few of international fame. The regional literature of India since the ancient times has travelled an extensive path to gain the shape that it possesses in present Indian panorama.
In the Minute on Indian Education, Thomas Babington Macaulay argues for the creation of a Westernized educational system. By utilizing the English language, Macaulay believes that he can transform India’s thinking. He undermines the importance of the Arabic and English language and continues to explain the superiority of England and the English language. He goes so far as to exclaim that one bookshelf in England contains more valuable information than all of the literature in India and Arabia, even though he admits that he has no knowledge of Sanscrit or Arabic. Babington has a braggadocios attitude in order to justify the colonization of India. By teaching the English language and ingraining
In Colonialism and Forms of Knowledge, Bernard Cohn argues that knowledge and power help the British control India using language. He analyzes different forms of “investigated modalities” that England constructed to justify their actions in India; in particular, these modalities produced knowledge in the form of official written documents, reports, and legal codes. These forms of knowledge allowed imperialist to construct their own historical narrative of their time in India, which served as a form of justification for their actions. In order to fully control the Indian masses, the British began learning different languages related to Indian culture. For instance, learning Persian seemed quite difficult for some because of the writing system
When it comes to demographics, India is home to two noteworthy dialect families. These two languages are Indo-Aryan and Dravidian. The different dialects used in India originated from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan dialect families. The discussed country has no designated national language but utilize several more often than not (Dharwadker, 2010). The language with the most amount of speakers is Hindi which has become the nation’s government’s official language. English is utilized broadly in corporate and organizational settings and has been deemed as the alternate language of India. English is also critical in school as it is seen as a level of advancement in education. India’s religious population consists of several different
The English which is spoken in India is different from that spoken in other regions of the world, and it is regarded as the unique variety which is called Indian English. The purpose of this folklore project is to show some of the various ways Indians have intentionally and unintentionally customized English to better suit their needs and to discuss some of the problems and situations which can and do arise when Indians use or experience English in different settings. Attitudes about English and English speakers in India are also explored.
Causes: The process of globalization for the English language might be caused by British colonization, the Space Race between United America and Russia, and the development of internet. First, between late 16th and early 18th centuries, England, by its outstanding navy power, has conquered about a quarter of the world’s terrestrial and with its colonies it was named ‘British Empire’. This could lead those colonial governments adding or switching to use English as the official language. One main reason is at that time English language seems to be a core strategy that British tried to use to better control her colonies by reinforcing the herself through implanting her culture, and economic significant(Richard Powell, 2002).
No doubt that more and more people want to be a part of this international community by using English as a global language, language that can help people from different countries to understand each other. Therefore, English also affects educational system and educational policies around the world and its role is growing very fast in higher
From Gautam wandering through the forest as a student in ancient inida to the troubled modern times of partition Hyder offers many vivid and powerful scenes. Many a times reader is overwhelmed with the surprisingly rich amount of historical information that Hyder reveals. But one does enjoy it. The colonial period is also well- covered, with the English intruding into the text. It also describes India’s different relationship with English , both in colonial times and after, is among Hyder’s greatest success here.
English was one of many languages spoken in Britain for four hundred years before it began to be called English. It was a language with no special status and without a special strong identity. In fact, the history of English started with the arrival of Anglo-Saxons in Britain in the 400s when Celtic languages were spoken by the inhabitants of the island. English shows some traces of Celtic, rising from the merge of dialects brought by the Germanic invaders. And after the Norman conquest of 1066, English spelling and vocabulary was affected by French and Latin, especially when French becomes the official language of England. But in the period of renaissance, Shakespeare and the Elizabeth era, the role of the church, of French and Latin turn down and English becomes the language of government and science. And when the first official government documents were written in English, a common sense of a
Chieftaincy has continued to experience pressures of change during the post-independence period. The introduction of the central government system in Ghana interfered in the institution of chieftaincy and reduced much of the authority and the power of chiefs (Boadi 2001, 20). However, despite these two major changes, chieftaincy is still very important in Ghana. Moreover, those pressures did not affect the religiosity of chieftaincy, which have always served as a hindrance to the involvement of Christians (Safo-Kantanka 1993, 53).