Pre-Independence Period In The Pre Independence Period

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2.2 English in India:
2.2.1 Pre-Independence Period:
English language was widely exposed to our country due to the British conquest. It was started to accept by the people when the British first came to India after the incorporation of the East India Company in 1600, and gained roots especially by the educational policies of a Governor-general Lord Macaulay.
The growth of English in India is well explained by Timothy J. Scrase in the following words:
“Since the days of the British Raj, English remained the language of domination, status and privilege in India. The hegemonic colonial project in India was to create and maintain a class of administrative officers, clerks and compliant civil servants to carry out the task of ruling the vast and
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Britishers in India, and as a colonial subjects people had no other choice but to learn, to know and to speak English. In this way the language started gaining roots in India.
Meanwhile two groups came in existence. One group was the ‘Anglicists’ advocated the revival of English and second was the ‘Orientalists’ who advocated the revival of Sanskrit and Persian learning in India but the noted Hindu leaders like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Christian missionaries like William Carey advocated Western education through the medium of English. and thus a controversy arose between these groups. It withheld the smooth progress of English in India.
Then Lord Macaulay was appointed as the president of the committee in 1834. His main contention was that the study of English could be beneficial to those Indians who were pursuing higher studies than Arabic and Sanskrit. He pointed out that there was already an effective demand for English. He argued that:
“since indigenous languages were inadequate and chaotic, and indigenous arts and literature were petty futile things. Only ‘Western’ education with English as the sole medium would deliver the

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