Pregnancy Institutes A State Of Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinemia Essay

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Pregnancy institutes a state of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, a condition involving the increase of insulin circulating in the blood(Association, 2004). This altered state predisposes some women to form a degree of glucose intolerance with onset that was otherwise not recognized preceding pregnancy (Association, 2004; Gilmartin, Ural, & Repke, 2008; Kaaja & Rönnemaa, 2008). This form of intolerance is referred to as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). GDM stems from a variety of factors ranging from human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) secretion and estrogen disruption, but this study will focus on Glucocorticoid (GC) secretion (Kaaja & Rönnemaa, 2008). GCs are steroids that have potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties (Munck, Guyre, & Holbrook, 1984). Cortisol is a naturally occurring GC as well as the end-product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the body’s central stress response(Jozic, Stojadinovic, Kirsner, & Tomic-Canic, 2015). HPA axis activity is characterized by the release of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), also referred to as corticotrophin- releasing hormone (CRH). When CRF binds to the CRF receptors on the anterior pituitary gland it stimulates the biosynthesis and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)(Munck et al., 1984). Released ACTH binds to adrenal cortex receptors triggering cortisol production and release. During pregnancy, regulation of the HPA changes at a drastic rate (Maeyama

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