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Pregnant Women

Decent Essays
Introduction
Choices and changes in lifestyle of women before and during the period of pregnancy, have a major impact on the health of both a woman and her upcoming child. Health professionals mostly advised women before and during pregnancy for modifications in lifestyle with positive way. A healthy lifestyle required and essential for unborn infant health as well important for an expectant mother. Sometimes these changes and choices of alcohol consumption and smoking before and during pregnancy considered as a big issue for both mother and her child. (Dunney, C & et al, 2015). Women who have habits of heavy drinking in prenatal phase are at increased risk for problems in child, like physical, behavioral, mental. This is not only related
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The key words are, “alcohol consumption, binge drinking, smoking, pregnancy, pregnant women, breastfeeding, child development, fetal development.” Here fetal development is as in utero development, and child development is as development after birth. Pregnant women are expectant mothers. Findings
Changes in trends of smoking found in these recent years. Young women and girls are in higher proportion as compared to men, in context of smoking. It is identified that alcohol use and smoking are interrelated. There is high risk for unprotected sex among young women and adolescent girls because of heavy drinking, and as a result unwanted pregnancy may occurred without realizing of being pregnant, and have continuous exposure to alcohol and smoking. As greater alcohol uses in pregnant women, greater chances of birth deficits to child and other developmental deformities, so need to control the use of alcohol and smoking in pregnant women and provide health education to them to avoid both for better health of unborn child and for her too (Bottorf, J L & et al,2014). Above statement relate with this that, alcohol use in pregnant women have significant adverse health deficits in infants along with the higher rates of mortality and morbidity of infants. Fetal growth
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Pregnant women who stop smoking and drinking after being pregnant at lower risk for adverse fetal outcomes. Smoking and alcohol cessation in early stage of pregnancy related to the decrease risk of child development, however no any specific malformations and developmental problems are mentioned. Tettamanti, et al, (2016) say that smoking in pregnancy associated with various adverse impediments as restricted fetal growth and development, premature birth and also shows long term results on child health and development. Some studies show very little evidence for association between childhood brain tumor and maternal smoking, whereas some earlier ones suggest no any relationship between both. Presence of carcinogens and metabolites of tobacco in tissues of placenta and umbilical cord of baby of those pregnant women who exposed to smoking. Because of this smoking during pregnancy consider as a probable reason for developing CBT. Findings in this study were quite interesting, they found very scarce or no any effect on CBT but also found positive relation between heavy exposure to smoking and all type of CBT, altogether in age group of 5-9 years old male children, and no relationship between female children. Mainly increased risk for development of astrocytoma among 5-9, year-old children whose mothers were exposed to
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