2723). Many researchers agree that one seems to be closer or more cohesive to their own group and associate a sense of pride for each other; on the other hand, they tend to fear the out-group because they are seen as the competitors, the enemies, and the traitors (Ramasubramanian, 2010; Baron & Branscombe, 2012; Hirsh & Lyons, 2010). Clearly this creates a disconnection between groups which make them feel a sense of threat for one another and prejudice feelings become more evident, while differences between the two appear. One of the most common theories that explain why prejudice persists today, as it relates to the workplace, is called realistic conflict theory (Baron & Branscombe, 2012). This psychological theory states that prejudice is more frequent when competition arises in a situation where there are limited resources that only one group can claim (Bobo, 1983). However, since discrimination is a learned behavior as mentioned earlier, thus one can conclude that it can be socially influenced; therefore, behavior can be altered (Bobo & Fox, 2003).
The Contact Hypothesis states that interaction between different groups, or representatives of different groups, leads to reduced prejudice and promotes positive attitudes (Allport, 1954). This has lead to the development of Contact Theory, which elaborates on how contact can reduce intergroup anxiety. According to Allport (1954), for contact to have the desired effect, there are certain conditions to the interaction taking place between groups (or members of groups). Firstly, the people who come into contact have to be of equal status. Secondly, there has to be a common goal toward which the groups strive and intergroup
Prejudice is one of the major topics in social psychology. It can be explained as an extreme and irrational attitude with three components—stereotype from the cognitive aspect, a strong feeling of hostility from the affective aspect, and discrimination from the behavioural aspect (Barry, 2016). Having prejudice towards someone or something
Prejudice is when we have a preconceived opinion about someone or a group of people that is formed without knowledge, or even a real understanding about them.
Contact Hypothesis-This is the principle that brings people together who are in conflict (or where one is bullying the other), the conflict will subside as they get to understand one another.
Preference, segregation, or enmity coordinated against somebody of an alternate race in light of the conviction that one 's own particular race is superior is prevalent. Prejudice is as old as human culture itself. For whatever length of time that individuals have been around, the contention has remained alive; people have constantly despised or dreaded individuals of an alternate country or skin color. It is said that racism or prejudice is simply some portion of human instinct, but we are not born with racism. We learn to discriminate from our societal norms.
‘Social policies aimed at reducing prejudice and intergroup conflict would do well to take account of social psychological research in this area.’ Discuss this statement, making reference to relevant research in your answer.
Prejudice has been around since the pilgrims arrived to the western hemisphere back in 1492 (Stevenson.2011). Africans were brought in from the western coast of the continent and put into ships to America to be enslaved. Ever since then America and a majority of other countries in the world has had or maybe even still have problems with prejudice. Prejudice doesn't have to just involve blacks, it can be any race that exists. We should talk about prejudice because it's still a problem that people like to keep in the dark when in reality it needs to be dealt with. This topic relates to sociology because everyday sociologists try to find out why minorities get more discriminated than whites and what they can do to limit this unorthodox practice. For the sociological lens, my topic fit under conflict theory. It fits under conflict theory because its a problem and were trying to figure out how to solve it. Discrimination and segregation would also fit under these topics as well. Also people tend to think that prejudice and discrimination
The Prejudice Debate Prejudice is how some people make the assumption of a few people. This is just like the old saying ,“Don’t judge a book by it’s cover.”, which means that you should not judge something by it’s cover. I think that you shouldn't judge a book by it’s cover or use prejudice.Prejudice is,like stereotypes, putting people or things are put into a category, and could be from race, gender, religion or things like that. The bathroom law that is very controversial which means that you have to use the bathroom that your gender is. Another is the travel ban from the five countries which was put in place by President Trump to reduce the threat from terrorists from 7 mostly Muslims countries. The ban also meant that
Would The controversies that occur between dominant and minority groups can blur the lines between the two groups. According to Marsiglia & Kulis, people with higher power may take their resources and money elsewhere if they are unsatisfied with the changes made to the established system that promotes prejudice. This leads to an undesirable opposite effect where the system becomes more segregated and separated (2015). Further difficulty with contact theory is the assumption that everyone wants to interact with others who do not share the same background, race, and/or belief. According to Marsiglia & Kulis (2015), humans prefer to follow the “homophily” principle since it validates that individuals want to spend time with people who look like them and act like them
What is the cause of prejudice? This is one of the few questions of interests in the field of social psychology. This essay will evaluate the social psychological approach to understanding prejudice.
Education is the most important and best way to fight prejudice, many people are actually prejudice simply because they are uneducated about other cultures/groups of people. Another way is Direct Contact, or intergroup contact, is when two groups of people or just two people are put in the same situation and made to work towards a common goal or just be around each other. When people are around each other, they tend to adopt the others characteristics and habits, this helps to form a bond that breaks down the walls of prejudice and really helps to prevent discrimination. The last is equal status contact, this is similar to direct contact but now it is taking status out of the equation. Much like with any culture there is a hierarchy set in place that lets to fighting between groups to be at the top. When status is stripped, the hierarchy breaks down and everyone is equal which lessens fighting for no good
Another research study examined the dynamics of different groups and how conflict can be studied by understanding these dynamics. Groups that adapt a cooperative style to functioning together view conflict as a common issue that needs to be addressed as a group. (Somech et al, 2009) On the other hand, groups that chose a more competitive approach tend to perceive conflict as a conflict of interest where one member's personal interests and goals may have a significant distance from the rest of the group. Teams where individuals are cooperative view conflict resolution as more beneficial to the entire group and understands that this will allow the group to perform well and complete it tasks. However, in order for groups to be cooperative, individual members need to share the same perspective and resonate with a strong team identity. (Somech et al, 2008) It is only when members of the group have a strong sense of team identity are they able to perceive conflicts as a mutual problem that needs to be resolved to benefit the team. Individuals will need to set aside differences in opinions and interests and construct resolutions that would positively affect the group.
This section of the course gave me a more in depth understanding of how many different forms prejudice can take place. Prior to the material in this section, I defined being prejudiced in terms of old-fashioned prejudice, explicit attitudes towards another individual. These attitudes would be restricted to being negative, especially towards minority groups. Now I see that this interpretation is not always the case, as prejudice is actually more complex. I have learned that prejudice can be rather implicit for the most part and project itself in ways that one is not usually aware. Modern symbolic, aversive, and ambivalent prejudice all have an implicit component of prejudice and can result in discrimination.
Intergroup conflict One determinant of intergroup conflict is the desire on the part of group member to gain positive outcomes for themselves and for their group