Preliminary Biology Yearly Notes

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Biology Year 11 Yearly Notes Chapter One – A local ecosystem 1.1 Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments -Ecosystem: any environment containing living organisms interacting with each other and with the non-living parts of that environment. -Environment: the environment of an organism is its surroundings, both living and non-living -Habitat: the habitat of an organism is the place where it lives. Australian Environments * Terrestrial environments are environments on land. Land covers about 35% of the Earth’s surface. * Aquatic environments are water environments. Oceans cover about 65% of the Earth’s surface. * Terrestrial and aquatic environments have very different abiotic characteristics. Abiotic Characteristics…show more content…
All living things ultimately depend on this process. The compounds plants make during photosynthesis provide nutrients and energy to organisms that consume plants. Organisms that consume the plant-eaters gain nutrients and energy from them, so both energy and materials are passed from organism to organism. Plants capture light energy and transform it into chemical energy. This chemical energy is transferred from plants to animals via the food chains. -Respiration: the process by which cells obtain energy. In this process, organic molecules, particularly sugars, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide and water, and energy is released. Without photosynthesis there would not be energy or carbohydrates available for the growth and reproduction of (almost) all organisms. In addition photosynthesis produces oxygen, which is essential for the release of energy in cells by the process of respiration. Uses of Energy by Organisms Energy from respiration powers all the processes of life. Some energy is released as heat. Other activities include: * Growth * Muscle contraction and movement * Synthesis of complex chemicals * Repair of damaged cells * Reproduction Aerobic Cellular Respiration -Aerobic: requiring the presence of oxygen. Respiration involves a chain of biochemical reactions. It’s a controlled process occurring as a sequence of around 50 different reactions, each one catalysed by a different enzyme. Stages of
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