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Prenatal Development Of Teratogens

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Prenatal nutrition and prenatal environmental exposure affects organogenesis of the embryo and fetus
The prenatal development generally refers to those processes which start at least 40 weeks prior to the birth of the child (1). However, the period of organogenesis happens during the third through the eight weeks of development and gives rise to the the three germ layers known as ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Those three germs layer will later on form specific tissues and organs. (2). The production and development of the organs also known as organogenesis begins thereafter the formations of the three organs (3). During he development of the different phases, which include growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation, the fetus is completely
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When the fetus is exposed to the teratogens during the prenatal stage, then, in that case, there are significantly high chances that the child will suffer from birth defects (4). There are different factors which are related to the level of exposures to the teratogens; amount of damage that a particular teratogen can have along with the level of dosages, heredity, age of the teratogen and the different other negative influences like that of the combination of teratogens with poor health etc. (1). There are different types of teratogens which pregnant women are advised to avoid like alcohol, prescription drugs/illegal drugs and tobacco. Alcohol use is one of the most use and major problem throughout pregnancy (4). Although it hasn’t been determined how much alcohol is detrimental to pregnant women, it has been found to be one of the major cause of mental disabilities in children in the United States (4). Alcohol usually passes from the mother’s blood stream via the placenta to the fetus. Indeed, maternal drinking is tied to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with life-long consequences for the new born (1). The research suggests that alcohol exposure to the 19th or 20th of gestation can significantly exposed the new born to facial abnormalities (1). It is unknown how much alcohol is necessary to cause damage, so doctors typically recommend that alcohol should be completely avoided during
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