Many medical advances are being made today in the area of genetics. One of the most talked about is prenatal genetic testing. The purpose of prenatal genetic testing is to obtain information on a baby's health before they are born. This new technology will definitely improve the quality of human life. Diseases will be diminished and through new advances some diseases might even be eliminated. Children will be at less risk to have major health problems in their lives adding positively to their life experience. Prenatal genetic testing will also affects society as a whole.
Type of lifestyle, diet, and mindset are some examples of choices a person can make to better his/her life. Race, height, and genetic disorders are some characteristics that we cannot control. However, for genetic disorders, there are options to lessen the likelihood of having a child born with a disability. Taking prenatal vitamins, attending routine checkups, not drinking alcohol and not smoking are just a few proactive options that can help prevent an abnormal pregnancy. Another option to ensure a safe pregnancy is to have prenatal genetic tests (PGT) done. The use of PGT’s have spanked many controversies over the years simply due to individual's morals differing. Those who are not in favor of PGT’s believe that these tests can promote
There is much controversy around the issue of genetic testing. These controversial issues range from being "unnatural" or against god 's will. There are several different ways to tests genetics but they all have one thing in common: they test for changes or mutations in chromosomes, genes, and proteins. These tests can provide answers for many families who want to know whether their children have become inflicted with a condition due to their family 's genetics, the health of the mother during the gestational period, or by some strange twist of the unknown. Despite all of the controversy, Genetic Testing is acceptable for determining whether an unborn child is at risk of developing a debilitating and/or deadly condition, relieving the worry of parents, and preemptively treating any condition that the child may have.
Genetic screenings for newborns are mandated genetic tests that are performed on all babies after birth. Genetic screenings are used to determine the potential for illness, disease, or conditions that could be passed on, by one or both parents. The test performed can be found on the website http://www.wadsworth.org/newborn-screening/screened-disorders, but include a list of over forty current mandatory genetic screenings. Genetic screening is done to protect newborns from conditions, diseases, or illnesses, that otherwise appear normal and may not be visible at birth, but through the mandatory screenings, abnormalities to genetic disorders can be detected, so risks can be reduce, decision, interventions and treatments can be made, that might
The topic of genetic testing is laced with controversy. The question at hand is “Does genetic testing provide more advantages or disadvantages?” There are plenty of well-researched and well-articulated arguments on each side of this discussion. During my time researching the topic, I flip-flopped my position multiple times, something that could very well continue to happen as I deepen my understanding of the issue. My current opinion is that despite the many advantages of genetic testing, the disadvantages still outweigh them. I feel this way for a variety of reasons: 1) Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is eerily similar eugenics; 2) Discrimination may occur as a result of the information provided by genetic testing; 3) Abnormal results may cause depression or anxiety even if that person does not suffer from a particular disease.
In this essay, I will argue that prenatal screening for disabilities for the intent of actively choosing to have a child without a disability is immoral. By disability, I mean the definition provided in a medical dictionary: “A disadvantage or deficiency, especially a physical or mental impairment that prevents or restricts normal achievement”. This does not include diseases that are considered inevitably and irreversibly fatal, nor does it include birth situations that are considered detrimental to the mother. I will use the term “possible child” hereafter to avoid loaded and biased terms such as “fetus” or “baby”.
The document examines the Newborn Screening: Genetic Diseases: Blood Samples Collected Bill No. 170, introduced by Assembly Member Mike Gatto on January 22, 2015. The law requires to amend Section 125000 of, and to add Sections 125003, 125004, and 125005 to, the Health and Safety Code, relating to newborn screening. According to the bill, the State Department of Public Health is required to establish a program for the genetic disease testing and follow up services for newborn children. All newborn children statewide are subject to a screening, unless it violates their parents’ or legal guardians’ religious beliefs and practices.
The distress and the health risk to the mother are concerns when viewed through the lens of the principle of nonmaleficence or of “do no harm”. The accessibility and cost of the prenatal genetic testing are contentious. Although prenatal genetic testing is considered to be a useful tool, some believe it leads us down a “slippery slope”. Controversy exists surrounding prenatal genetic testing for reasons of social, psychological, moral, and religious rationales.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnostic testing is a technique that is used to identify and prevent genetic defects in the embryos of mothers through in vitro fertilization before pregnancy. The term “designer babies” is what is used to describe the result of this procedure. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can cause new issues to arise through society, morality and even science, thus this procedure should be prevented. As these certain issues of society, morality and science combine together, it can lead a negative ripple effect on humanity.
The first way that prenatal testing can be done is through something called a prenatal diagnostic test. "In general, it is the diagnostic procedures, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, that people think of when they hear the term prenatal testing," (Press 1). Amniocentesis is when doctors take a sample of the fluid that surrounds the baby in the uterus to determine certain genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities. Chorionic villus sampling is when doctors take cells from projections on the placenta to also discover any genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities. These processes are considered "invasive" because they are putting objects that could potentially hurt the baby into the protective area surrounding the baby. These ways of prenatal testing come with a very negative feeling because they could possibly injure the baby, and the word invasive is attached to a very negative connotation. However, these options can find more abnormalities and diseases than non-invasive prenatal testing. "NIPT accurately diagnoses Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome, Patau syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and numerical chromosome aberration and cannot detect other chromosomal anomalies," (Ryu & Kim 1). Even though this is true, NIPT is still a very beneficial option to the mother and unborn child. NIPT usually uses a DNA sample to determine chromosomal abnormalities that could lead to things such as Down's syndrome. The procedure is done by the doctors taking a sample of the mother's blood to determine what types of diseases and disabilities the baby will have. Many people like this type of prenatal testing because it is not detrimental to the baby, or mother's health. "Studies investigating the acceptability of NIPT suggest that pregnant women find it preferable because the standard screening is associated with more uncertain results and
The overall problem of prenatal screenings is the understanding of what they are and how they may be perceived by others (Deans, Clarke & Newson, 2015, p.19). Ethical issues tend to arise when people are either misinformed or not informed
The Human Genome Project introduces significant scientific findings to the world, but raises a lot of controversies. Many of these controversies concern the application of this new scientific finding and its ethicality. Genetic information from a project, once aimed towards mapping the human genome in hope for curing diseases, are now being used in businesses. It shouldn’t be permissible for employers to require that all employees, as well as potential employees, be screened for genetic vulnerabilities and to use the results of such screening when they make hiring, retention, and job assignment decisions. These genetic vulnerabilities may include diseases, unsuitable personality traits and other traits the company deems undesirable. Employees shouldn’t be judged by their genes, because the results do not adequately speak for what the employees will do in life, the employee’s position in the society, and the employee’s financial standing. Genetic testing should be an option for the employees to decide on job assignment rather than influence the hiring decisions of employers. Genetic testing only shows genetic potential, not potential growth. Conducting genetic testings on employees infringes on their privacy and encourage more social gaps with genetic classes.
The element of excitement when procreating offspring ceases with the development of Genetic Engineering. Parents will no longer wonder if their child will have grandma’s curly brown mane or Uncle Todd’s piercing gray gaze. The scientific breakthrough in technology of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD), originally created to screen diseases in embryos, has now become tantamount to an online shopping cart for determining cosmetic traits. To the parents who wish to decide what their children look like, you may be headed in the direction of becoming Adolf Hitler Lite. Using reproductive technologies to determine cosmetic features borders on scientifically useless and irresponsible, as it is basically a guise to revive eugenics.
There are several prenatal screenings being performed today. The one that seems to be the most famous is an ultrasound scan; this form of testing allows the doctor and the mother to see the baby organs, how well it is growing and determine the sex of the baby. Another screen is the transvaginal ultrasound. And as uncomfortable as it may be the doctor and mother are presented with clearer images of the baby. These form of ultrasound aren't only safe for the baby but for the other as well as no form of radiation is involved. The problem with the transvaginal ultrasound is, in order for the ultrasound to be carried out the tech have to cover the instrument with a covering that contains latex and could possibly cause an allergic reaction in those