2. Materials and methods 2.1. Electrospinning The collector was fabricated using a common 5B pencil and A4 paper. Paper was tailored to suitable size, and different patterns were drawn using a pencil. Subsequently, the paper was folded in different shapes as collectors. Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL, MW = 60,000) was dissolved in dichloromethane/ethanol (v:v =3:1) to form a homogeneous solution with a concentration of 15 wt%, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, MW = 1,300,000) was dissolved in ethanol at a concentration of 8 wt%. After that, the solution was transferred to a syringe fastened on an infusion pump. The solution was pumped at a rate of 0.5 mL/h. 8 kV voltage was applied between the needle and the collecter placed 10 cm away to form an electrospinning jet. The collectors and fibers were observed using a camera (Nikon, Japan) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (JSM-7011F, Japan).
Maintain nanofiltration membranes of low molecular weight organic compounds, divalent ions, large monovalent ions, Hydrolyzed reactive dyes and dyeing of auxiliaries. Harmful effects of high concentrations of dye and salts in dye house outflows have often been reported (33, 34, 35). In most published studies on dye waste water, the concentration of mineral salts is not more than 20 g / l and the concentration of dye does not exceed 1.5 g / l (36). In general, the wastewater is reconstituted with only one dye (37), and the volume studied is also low. The treatment of waste water by nanofiltration is one of the rare applications that are possible for the treatment of solutions with highly concentrated and complex solutions (38). An important problem is the accumulation of dissolved solids, which eliminates the treated discharge outflows in water currents
Recently semiconductor based photo-catalysis as a sort of Green technology which has attracted notable attraction among the researchers. This field has emerged as one of the most promising ways for photo conversion-related technologies by harvesting sun light in environment and energy fields. In general photocatalytic oxidation has been applied broadly in
ABSTRACT Graphene is pure carbon in the form of a very thin, nearly transparent sheet, one at6om thick. It has been hailed as a miracle material because of its low weight, high strength and high electrical and heat conductivity. Since 2004, the graphene market has risen and with the potential for future application could be a multibillion dollar business. Graphene has been planned to replace conductors and also replace catalysts in enzyme immobilisation. Graphene can be manufactured in ways that are low-cost and high-return.
Imaging proposal Introduction: Polymer membranes are gaining an ever growing attention in the engineering and science disciplines [P.D.Chapman, T.Oliveira, A.G.Livingston, K.Li, Membranes for the dehydration of solvents by pervaporation, J.Membr.Sci.318 (2008)5–37.]. They have been conventionally used for size exclusion applications for instance micro-filtration (MF),ultrafiltration (UF),nanofiltration (NF),and reverse osmosis (RO). Membranes are used as support matrices for immobilization in the fields of biosensors and enzyme based bioreactors [K. Gabrovska, J.Ivanov, I.Vasileva, N.Dimova, T.Godjevargova, Immobilization of urease on nanostructured polymer membrane and preparation of urea amperometric biosensor, Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 48(2011)620–626.]. Furthermore, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography with functionalized membranes is increasingly applied in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry [P.Ghosh, K.Vahedipour, M.Lin, J.H.Vogel, C.A.Haynes, E.vonLieres, Zonal rate model for axial and radial flow membrane chromatography. PartI: Knowledge transfer across operating conditions and scales, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110(2013)1129–1141.].
In 1899 ionic conductivity was observed in a solution of ZrO2(Y2O3) however the potential for use in oxygen separation technology has only gained attention in the last 35 years. The best oxygen separation capabilities are seen in defect free ceramic membranes and result in 100% pure oxygen. There are a
(ii) The new and successful application of the single step in-situ deposition of DA to immobilize the GO nanosheets onto the membrane surface was achieved. Applying GO nanosheets with the proper concentration rendered them tightly bound to the membrane surface without aggregations. This optimum modification also improved the membrane surface morphology, smoothness, hydrophilicity and antibacterial properties, resulting in improved desalination performance and better biofouling resistance. This simple and stable surface modification has great potential in the improvement of FO membranes.
The interstitial space between the synthesized VA CNTs was filled in a mold with CRP 7005B urethane monomer (T&L, Yongin, Korea) and ethanol in a volume ratio of 3:7. Ethanol was used as the densification agent and inducer for urethane monomer filling the interstitial space between CNTs. After infiltration, CRP 7005B monomer was crosslinked in the interstitial space of CNTs at 40 °C for 12 h. After the crosslinking, the top and bottom of the CNT membrane were cut by a microtome to open the CNT’s caps, and the membrane edge was extended by additional crosslinking by different urethane monomers (UC-40 A, B, Cytec,
The development of FO process can be managed by two major factors:1) the development of high-performing draw solutions and 2) using highly efficient FO membrane.
Eudragit RS and RL 100 polymers have been selected as a carrier for fabrication of nanofibers due to their nice stability, biocompatibility, and nice adhesion over skin due to excellent swelling property, and presence of surface charge. These charges can facilitate prolonged residence time and adhesion over targeted site (Haznedar
materials, photonics, bioengineering, energy production, andstorage. Pure graphene is hydrophobic in nature and cannotbe dispersed in aqueous solutions  therefore this factor limitsits application in water purification. Chemically converted graphene, namely graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,can be easily synthesized and have shown numerous potentialapplications in water
Filters can have either open cells or closed cells. Open cell (reticulate) filters consist of a network of interconnected voids surrounded by a web of ceramic and are widely used for molten metal filtration. Closed cell filters (foams) consist of a similar network but the beams are bridged by thin faces which isolate the individual cell. The open porosity in an open cell structure is critical in filter applications. The properties of a filter depend on both the cellular geometry (density, cell size) and the properties of the material.
These new innovations do face some amount of opposition, however. There is not an enormous amount of funding being put forth for finding new ways of generating fresh drinking water. There are also not many scientifically proven techniques to do so. Currently, the only techniques that are really implemented include: distillation, carbon filtration, membrane filtration, ultraviolet irradiation, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange (Roush). However, these current techniques are very costly and they require a large amount of energy to be used when done. Alternative techniques that are cheaper and more energy efficient need to be given more attention and funding. Implementing new biotechnology for water purification will leave a positive impact on society by creating a greater amount of fresh, drinkable water, creating more readily available water sources in parts of the world that are currently lacking, and by keeping a necessary resource for human life available in a constantly consuming society.
Food production, agriculture, paper, oil and gasoline industries are major users of fresh water. Environmental homeostasis has ceased to the ever-increasing global population and paucity of fresh water is one of the most severe outcomes of the same. This necessitates the efficient recycling of marginal water sources and ultra-permeable membranes1 are rapidly emerging as a widely-implemented technology for the same. Presently used membranes are either dense solution2,3 or diffusion based4,5 or channel- based6,7 which predominantly target molecular size separations in the > 1-2 nm scale8. However, stringent sub nm (2 – 10 Å) separations are essential for defense, transportation systems (automobile exhaust filters), water purification and a
Introduction Water is pure substance while its bond strength between hydrogen and oxygen is extremely strong. In addition, water is very important for both human beings and creatures and also it is essential for health, hygiene and the productivity of the world. However, almost all the supply of water in the world must contain organic material, chemicals, minerals and manmade pollutants, which might result in undrinkable or polluted solution. Moreover, the polluted solution contains deadly bacteria and viruses, which might cause some disease. According to American Geoscience Institute (2015), water is a scarce resource, which cannot be recovered after consuming. It states that most of the fresh water that is available for creatures is both contained in soil and rock below the surface. That is, the portable water account for a low percentage of total water in the world. Therefore, water plays an important role in the world, and also creatures cannot live without cleaning water; hence, water treatment becomes an important issue that should be seriously concerned gradually. This essay will explain some major design of water treatment filter in the world and it will firstly focus on a variety types of water treatment filters, demonstrating and suggestion of design parameter for water treatment filter; Next, demonstrating the appropriate design for sustainability; and finally, comparing the difference of water treatment filter between developed and developing countries