Presidential Vs. Parliamentary Systems Of Government

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There has always been a debate over which form of government is the most stable. For a long time, there was either a choice (within democratic models) of presidential systems of government, in which the executive is all powerful, or parliamentary systems of government, where the legislature is the supreme power. However, in the past century, a middle ground has emerged between the two: semi-presidential systems of government. Semi-presidential systems, as defined by Maurice Duverger (an early writer on such models), are systems “where a president of the republic, elected by universal suffrage and given personal powers, co-exists with a government resting on the confidence placed in it by parliament” . This means that semi-presidential models of government generally have a directly elected president and parliament, along with a prime minister, who is appointed. The question of whether these systems are more or less stable than presidential or parliamentary then becomes the focus, and must be looked at in practice for this measure. Semi-presidential systems, as seen in France and Russia, can at times be either very stable or very unstable, depending on the composition of a particular government. France, a pioneer in the concept of semi-presidential systems, has seen stability go either way, depending on the affiliation of elected officials. Conflict started occurring in the late twentieth century that challenged the stability of the current French system. Russia, since the

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