Presocratics Opened A Period Of Creative Thinking To Which
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Presocratics opened a period of creative thinking to which succeeded a period of skeptical reflection. It is with the Sophists that this era of the critical reflection started. They were paid teachers in the ancient Greece who moved from city to city according to people demand. They developed some theories that were criticized, especially by Socrates (470 BC). One of their big differences concerns the essence of Truth. Whereas Socrates endeavored to find true and universal definitions of virtues such as justice; The sophists, on the contrary, maintained that "truth" is relative, believing that all opinions are valid, since they all reflect in their own way a complex and peculiar set of what is lived; for the sophists that the truth does…show more content… Killing an innocent man is wrong, killing a killer is good. This assumption is based on the sophists’ practice of reducing the truth to what is, persuaded that appearance hides nothing.
The Sophists, from the nihilism of Gorgias to the pessimism of Protagoras, will trigger an intellectual revolution. The ideas emitted by them shaken certainties like traditional moral and religious values which will create doubt in people’s mind starting with Socrates.
Socrates is a philosopher like no other. It is the symbol of Western philosophy. He holds the exceptional place of the founder of philosophical ethics, even though it is very hard to create an actual and error-free biography of Socrates since he left no writing. We reach Socrates only indirectly by Plato, Xenophon, and Aristophanes. Yet he represents such a revolution that all the others before him are called Presocratics. Almost all the later philosophical systems – no matter how divergent they may be – refer to him. According to Plato, Socrates stood up against the Sophists ' excesses. He tirelessly denounced the inconsistencies and foolishness of common opinion, provoked those who posed as promoters of thought; sophists. He was not fond of the way they used rhetoric. “For Socrates, on the other hand, the arts of communication, argument, and persuasion have a different goal. His practice of them is designed not to win a victory over his opponent but to advance toward the truth.” (65). Socrates