Prevalence Of Sickle Cell Anemia

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Festus Ezeocha PREVALENCE OF SICKLE CELL ANEMIA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA According to Sickle Cell Disease American Association sickle cell anemia defined as an inherited blood disorder that alters red blood cells. Patients with sickle cell disease have their red blood cells contaminated with an abnormal kind of hemoglobin called the Hemoglobin S. The National Institute of Health (NIH), reports that this anomalous behaviour of the hemoglobin S reduces the red blood cell into a sickle shape which becomes impermeable through the blood vessels as shown in the figure below. Hence, it affects the flow of pure red blood cell to other parts of the human body. This figure shows the normal red blood cell flowing freely in the blood vessel and the sickle shape blood cell disrupting the flow of blood. (NIH, 2012) To be certified of having a sickle cell disease, two copies of the gene are required. This includes the Alpha and the Beta gene. People with one of these genes are known to have sickle cell traits. There are four types of sickle cell anemia with regard to the different types of mutation affecting the genes. Which are Hemoglobin SS Disease, Hemoglobin SC Disease, Hemoglobin SB + (Beta) Thalassemia, Beta – Zero Thalassemia To add, sickle cell disease is an autosomal inherited genetic disease according to Beyers, (2013) research. It is predominant among people of Africa, India, Saudi Arabia and Central America; other prevalent place include the Mediterranean region
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