Prevention Strategies of Communicable Diseases

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Prevention Strategies of Communicable diseases
Methods of Control
Communicable diseases occur only when the causative agent comes into contact with a susceptible host in a suitable environment. Prevention and control efforts for communicable diseases may be directed to any of these three elements. Communicable diseases affect both individuals and communities, so control efforts may be directed at both. Treatment of persons with communicable diseases with antibiotics typically kills the agent and renders them noninfectious. Thus, treatment is also prevention. A simple way to prevent the occurrence of communicable diseases is to eliminate the infectious agent through, for example, cooking food, washing hands, and sterilizing surgical
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Impact of Communicable Diseases
The gathering of humans in settlements (and subsequently cities) resulted in the development of periodic epidemics of communicable diseases, often with devastating impact. In the fourteenth century, for example, bubonic plague (carried by rats and transmitted to humans by fleas) swept through Europe, killing approximately one-quarter of the population of the continent. Epidemics of "crowd" diseases such as measles and influenza resulted from person-to-person transmission, and inadequate water and sewage management led to epidemics of diseases such as cholera and typhoid. Milk-and food-borne diseases also were common. Until the end of the nineteenth century, communicable diseases were the leading cause of death throughout the world.
In the United States in 1900, tuberculosis was the leading cause of death, followed by pneumonia and diarrhea. Along with diphtheria (in tenth place), these conditions accounted for more than 30 percent of all deaths in the country. Major reductions in morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases have resulted from improvements in sanitation, housing, and nutrition as well as introduction and use of vaccines and specific therapies.
Improvements in sanitation have
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