Primary Care Testing For Cancer Cell By Ion Exchange .

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Primary Care Testing for Cancer Cell by Ion Exchange
For people with concerns about health issues, the physician 's office is usually the first contact with healthcare. Physician’s waiting room is usually busy with patients of all ages with different symptoms and reasons for being there. With a physician’s competence and medical experience, they know what can be easily cured, what should be followed up, and what needs to be referred to a specialist. The accurate testing of clinical parameters is the key for making important medical decisions. The dominant model of laboratory testing is centralized laboratory, which more of analytical processes are automated to enable the analysis of large numbers of samples at relatively low cost. This
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Therefore, patients can receive treatment before cancer metastasizes to other areas of the body, which is resulting in better health outcomes. The main challenge in circulating tumor cell (CTC) research is their detection, which requires the ability to detect one CTC out of almost 1 billion normal blood cells [2, 3]. Based on the known properties of tumor cells, several platforms for CTC detection have been developed. Such platforms can be classified into two major categories: (I) Immunochemistry-based methods, and (II) physical property-based methods. CELLSEARCHTM from Janssen Diagnostics is considered the most successful and the only FDA-approved platform for CTC detection in clinical practice in patients with breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Limitation of this method is the low yield of CTC capture from larger blood volume. Metastasis often involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cells; thus, epithelial marker-dependent approaches may miss numerous CTCs that have low or absent epithelial marker expression. Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) [4] is another widely accepted size-based approach. This platform applies a specific membrane filter for tumor cell selection, because tumor cells are often larger and stiffer than blood cells. Main advantage of using membrane filter is that cells can be retained for further investigation. Nonetheless, the sizes of tumor cells may vary
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