Judging by these statistics, drug abusers, both violent and non-violent, are most at risk to relapse. The reason for this is quite simple. Most of these inmates released on parole never complete any form of rehabilitation program. Proponents of the parole system argue that rehabilitation programs and their success rates make parole a realistic solution. Indeed, there are many great programs that have been started in recent years. For example, the BOP's drug abuse treatment program (DAP), which was started in 1986, has met with astounding results. Parolees who successfully completed this program faced a mere 3.3% chance of being re-arrested in the first 6 months after release, and a much lower 20% relapse into drug use. These people faced a 73% lower chance of being re-arrested compared to those who did not complete this program. In theory this sounds like the solution to everyone's problems. However, what the many
The United States Correctional System is often challenged as to whether it wants to rehabilitate drug offenders or punish them, and because of this it mostly does neither. Even though drug abuse and drug trafficking are widely spread national issues, the mental, social, and economic costs of "healing" through incarceration are only making the "disease" worse. Never before have more prisoners been locked up on drug offenses than today. Mixed with the extremely high risks of today's prison environment, the concept of incarceration as punishment for drug offenders cannot be successful. Without the correct form of rehabilitation through treatment within Michigan's Correctional System, drug
Currently, America incarcerate a higher percentage of its citizens than any other industrialized nation in the world. The negative impact of addiction to alcohol and drugs on American culture and society is inescapable. Although various treatment models have been developed and implemented over the years, a monumental number of people struggling with substance dependence continue to be under treated. Whereas, many people are questioning the criminalization people face because they ingest or consume drugs, for the most part, the criminal justice system focus more on incarceration instead of rehabilitation for the offenders and addicts.
The need for prison-based addiction treatment is intense. In the most recent data from the Department of Justice in 2002, it was found that 68 percent of offenders reported symptoms of addiction in the year before their admission to jail that met addiction criteria. 16 percent of convicted offenders report they have committed their offense in order to get money for drugs. 63 percent of offenders who met addiction criteria had participated in some form of treatment in the past (James & Karberg, 2005).
In assignment one, I stated that substance abuse disorders can cause barriers for ex-prisoners reentering back into the community because research shows that “individuals who are released from prison are more likely to encounter difficulties with substance abuse, as 73.6% individuals in the criminal justice system have drug and alcohol involved with their criminal behavior. “Researchers found that 80% of individuals incarcerated in state prison have serious substance abuse problems. Substance abuse has a significant role in recidivism upon release from prison and desire to use substances or craving of substance was the most common barrier to reentry” (Phillips and Spencer 127-128). In order to decrease substance abuse in prison reentry and create defensible solutions for ex-offenders, the criminal justice must create incarceration-based therapeutic programs for adults that will use an in-depth drug treatment program model for treating ex-offenders who are addicted to drugs, and change the ex-offender’s attitude, perception, and behavior linked to substance abuse. The program will aim to stop the ex-offender from using drugs and create will power inside the ex-offender not to back track into a life of drug
The overdoses within prisons and failing treatment method, made it appear as if there was no hope of reducing recidivism. This negative material would benefit further research by digging further into prison-based drug treatment methods to find what is working. Surely, the correctional system is not doing more harm to people than providing treatment that could help them.
There are currently over two million people in our nation 's state and federal prisons and jails. Nearly one and a half million of these offenders occupy state and federal prisons, serving over a year in detention for felonies.(1) The most alarming statistic is the fact that the United States houses twenty five percent of the world 's inmates. A good percentage of these convicts are serving time for drug crimes, most of which are first time,
Until recently, there was a dramatic disconnect between this research and drug court operations. The consequences of this disconnect included relapse, overdose, and death. While drug courts were designed to accommodate those in need of medical care, most operated under the misguided and dangerous practice of requiring defendants, as part of their successful program completion, to stop taking life-saving addiction medication prescribed by their physicians. This practice, which is at odds with decades of scientific and medical research, put individuals with opioid addictions in the precarious position of either having to stop taking their effective medication and risk relapse or use their medication and face incarceration. To compound matters
In today’s prison systems inmate are subjected to the four main purposes of prison, which are retribution (punishment), incapacitation placed in prison), deterrence (stop future crimes), and rehabilitation (re-submission into society). The BOP (Bureau of Prison) recognizes that being incarcerated can take a toll on inmates and family members who are locked behind bars. The services and agencies within the prison try to work carefully, providing full knowledge and education to correctional staff and inmates on suicide prevention. Every staff member will get annual trainings on the mentally ill and suicide prevention. The BOP reports “After an inmate arrives at an institution, during the admission and orientation process, every inmate receives information on mental health services available at the site” (BOP, n.d.). Inside the prison walls there are Psychology Services members that are on call at many of these institutions, which they provide crisis intervention and support services for inmate who need it. The Bureau of Prison gives their staff severe training, giving them first hand participation in the efforts to prevent crisis through the inmate’s imprisonment. The treatment that these inmates receive can possibly improve
Drug abuse and crime is not a new concept and the statistics around the problem have continued to rise. According to (Office of Justice Programs, 2011), there were an estimated 1,846,400 state and local arrests for drug abuse in the United States. Additionally, 17 percent of state prisoners and 18 percent of federal inmates said they committed their current offense to obtain money for drugs (Office of Justice Programs, 2011). Based on this information, we can conclude that our criminal justice systems are saturated with drug abusers. The United States has the highest imprisonment rate and about 83 percent of arrests are for possession of illegal drugs (Prisons & Drug Offenders, 2011). Based on these figures, I can conclude that we should be more concerned about solving the drug abusers problems and showing them an alternative lifestyle rather than strict penalty of long term incarceration which will inevitably challenge their ability to be fully functioning citizens after release.
Substance abuse is also a factor in recidivism rates. A sizable amount of prisoners met the DSM-IV criteria for either drug dependence or abuse in 2004, with 45% of those in federal prison and 53% of those in state prison diagnosed (Karberg & Mumola, 2006). The Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities completed by the Bureau of justice Statistics in 2004 found that almost one third of state prisoners admitted that their crime was committed while they were under the influence of an illegal substance. It also found that one in every three inmates committed their crime to gain drug money (Karberg & Mumola, 2006). Those who were at high risk for substance abuse were more likely to recidivate than those without drug issues (Wikoff, Linhorst, & Morani, 2012).
Not only do they get incarcerated but they are consisntly being reincarceated. A study was done approved by The Washington State University Institutional Review Board, 105 women at a treatment center that previously were involved in illegal activities wanted to successfully finish treatment and maintain the ability to be safe and sober back in society. The women were not just previously involved in illegal activities but also have hide variety of history involving substance use and mental health issues. The programs main objective was to treat each individual for addiction and criminal behavior. Each individual was required to complete baseline assessment after a certain amount of weeks, in addition to collecting medical record. Soon they started the “Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention which wanted to help each individual realize they are in “automatic pilot” when it comes to relapse. Being an automatic pilot means being able to recognize cravings and what triggers the relapse. They taught each women in the study how to handle the want of relapsing in real life situations. The outcome showed that the the most helpful part of treatment was sober space taught at the end of treatment. The outcome showed that only approximately 11% of the women reported to relapse. The study showed that substance abuse for criminal offenders is an effective way to reduce reduce relapse rates. More treatments should look into the Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention study because it showed to have been more effective that usual treatment. It shows that active treatment in addition to after treatment care can be effective. This study shows various techniques that can be used for criminals to lower the relapse rate but can be used for treatment among individuals who are not criminals as
Phillips article emphasized the discouraging information that substance abuse and recidivism go hand and hand. Phillips draws the viewer’s attention to some statics that was published in 2000 stating a prisoner will face issues with substance abuse following release because more than 73% of people with a criminal past is related to drug abuse and incarceration. Phillips aids the audience to the research that was conducted inside an East Coast prison where the participants were the convicted felons themselves. They were all men of various ages, diverse, and different education levels. The interview was to gather information on their substance abuse past to determine if it would
It is common knowledge that America has the world’s largest population of prisoners, and in 2008, a study was completed by the Pew Charitable Trusts which indicated that half of the inmates in jail and prison are serving time for nonviolent drug charges (http://www.pewstates.org/news-room/press-releases/new-pew-study-finds-36-percent-increase-in-prison-time-served-85899394970). Since the “War on Drugs” approach about forty years ago, the criminalization of the addict has done very little to address the problem of substance abuse in society. While there is no one clear cause of substance abuse, there have been patterns identified in substance abusers, that may be the underlying factors that lead to the addiction. Some of these factors include mental health and biology.