Probation And Parole And Juvenile Offenders Essay

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Probation and parole were unknown concepts until the early 19th century. Just over one-hundred years old, the emphasis has moved from the offender to concern for the welfare of the community, altogether public safety. Probation and parole accommodates the offender by allowing them to reenter or remain in society, while they serve their sentences. Today, the probation and parole agencies in the United States handle millions and only sixty percent of probationers complete their obligations successfully. Fifteen percent of parolees eventually return to prison, suggesting that there is success in the probation and parole system. The goals of corrections include punishment, rehabilitation and deterrence of crime; supervision of criminals and preparing offenders for re-entry into society. Corrections also aim to prevent recidivism or relapse of criminal behavior as well as reducing delinquency and violence in communities. The first probation officers were expected to provide moral leadership to their probationers, helping them shape positive attitudes, behaviors toward family and religion, how they use their free time, along with gaining employment. There has been enormous change in the philosophy and practice of sentencing and corrections over the last twenty years. The historical changes in sentencing and corrections policies are characterized in four major goals; retribution, rehabilitation, deterrence and incapacitation.
Retribution refers to punishment for doing

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