Probation Parole And Parole For The Year 2013

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In 2014 the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a report regarding probation and parole for the year 2013, the most recent year for which data is available. The report noted that by the end of that year there were an estimated 4,751,400 adults serving probation or parole; women accounted for 25% (Herberman & Bonczar, 2014). The number of women on probation and parole doubled between 1990 and 2003, which led to research into the best practices for women offenders (Sydney, 2005). In addition to supervised release there were 173,824 individuals who were unconditionally released in 2013 (Carson, 2014). Unconditional release occurs when an inmate completes their prison term and is released without probation or parole requirements. In…show more content…
Education was also a factor of recidivism. Individuals who did not have a high school education were one and a half times more likely to return to prison (Matheson, Doherty, & Grant, 2011; Wikoff, Linhorst & Morani, 2012). Substance abuse is also a factor in recidivism rates. A sizable amount of prisoners met the DSM-IV criteria for either drug dependence or abuse in 2004, with 45% of those in federal prison and 53% of those in state prison diagnosed (Karberg & Mumola, 2006). The Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities completed by the Bureau of justice Statistics in 2004 found that almost one third of state prisoners admitted that their crime was committed while they were under the influence of an illegal substance. It also found that one in every three inmates committed their crime to gain drug money (Karberg & Mumola, 2006). Those who were at high risk for substance abuse were more likely to recidivate than those without drug issues (Wikoff, Linhorst, & Morani, 2012). According to Yamatiani and Spieldnes (2011) the biggest issues faced by women exiting incarceration were stable housing and long-term, legal employment. It was also noted that women suffer from issues such as sexual trauma and problems connecting with their children more often than their male counterparts (Bloom, Owen,
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