Procedures in the Physical Sciences

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Intro Part I: Challenges in Measurements For the bulk of the physical sciences, accurate measurements require much more than simply going out and collecting data, as a social scientist would. In fact, a lot of measuring in the physical sciences is related to very distant objects or places, where the average scientist cannot probably ever reach. One thing physical scientists can rely on are the laws of physics and mathematics, which are the same both on here and in space. These can help make the untouchable tangible. For example, astronomers have an extremely difficult time working within their field of study because the stars and all of space are so far out of their reach. Astronomers explore worlds that no human will ever reach. Despite advances in technology that have allowed us to send probes far out into space, they often still cannot reach the vast distances of all of the stars that are visible from earth. Astronomers deal with a major problem in measurement: they have to measure and calculate the properties of objects that are millions of light years away, so far that no technology today would help bring any closer to the human touch. As a result, astronomers have had to figure out other methods for working with objects at such large distances. When they explore the stars, they often use mathematics as a way to generate observations of size, distance, and rate of speed for objects way out in space. Using what is known as parallax, astronomers can effectively gauge
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