Process Of Genetic Engineering Applications

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The field of genetic engineering is comprised of multiple different subsets. Some of the specific research subsets of the field include gene therapy, genetic modification, genetic enhancement, and cloning. Gene therapy and genetic enhancement use similar processes to alter specific portions of the DNA, whereas cloning has a more specific method which is different in relation. The basic process of genetic modification will be used as an example to illustrate the technical aspects of research areas like gene therapy and genetic enhancement. In addition to genetic modification techniques, cloning has specific applications in animals. A specific method of cloning, somatic cell nuclear transfer, will be discussed in addition to genetic modification to demonstrate the technical skill associated with this application of genetic engineering.

Genetic Modification
A classic example of genetic modification is the modification of the bacterium E. coli to incorporate the gene for human insulin. The insertion of the insulin gene into the bacterial DNA allowed for E. coli cells to yield insulin as a functional product. This was a major breakthrough in medicine because scientists were able to isolate the insulin produced from the bacterial cells and use it as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Type I diabetes. The process of creating genetically modified E. coli is illustrated below in figure XXX. Figure XXX:
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