Processing and Manufacturing of Cheese

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Cheese has been used for centuries in an effort to preserve the nutrition available in milk. Today, more than fourteen hundred types of cheese exist, each with a distinct taste. (Thompson, 2007)The manufacturing of cheese is through several processes that are, pasteurization, adding additives, milk ripening and coagulation, curd treatment and finally cheese ripening. (Goff, 1995) PH monitoring, along with the casein to moisture ratio, is the most important step that determines cheese texture. Certain cheese varieties, such as Swiss, Gouda and Cheshire cheese exhibit a narrower range of pH as compared to Cheddar cheese. Starter cultures are used to achieve the desired pH needed for fermentation. In order to reach the optimum pH, the temperature, content of lactose and the products produced during fermentation are closely monitored. This stage of the cheese making process is called ripening. (Ardo&Waagner, 2011). The minimum pH used for the production of different types of cheese is given in the graph below. (Ardo&Waagner, 2011) Camembert, Feta and Danablu are low pH cheese varities, where as, Cheddar cheese utilizes a medium minimum pH. High pH cheese varieties include Mozzarella, Tilsiter, Havarti, Gouda, Danbo and the Emmental groups. (Ardo&Waagner, 2011) Starter cultures are microorganisms that are used in the production of cultured milk products. Lactic acid bacteria, LAB, are the most frequently used microorganisms in the production of cheese. They help lower the
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