Production of Acetone

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5.1 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: Acetone is produced directly or indirectly by propylene. Early processes for the manufacture of acetone were based on the thermal decomposition of calcium acetate or the carbohydrate fermentation of corn starch or molasses. The ready availability of propylene in the 1960s led to routes based on the dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol or cumene peroxidation. (1) By Cumene Oxidation (Hock Process). Propene is added to benzene [71-43-2] to form cumene [98-82-8], which is then oxidized by air to cumene hydroperoxide, and cleaved in the presence of an acid catalyst like zeolite. Phenol [108-95-2] and acetone [67-64-1] produced in the process are recovered by distillation. Ratio of phenol to acetone is 1:0.6.…show more content…
The process was started during World War II to provide acetone needed for the manufacture of cordite. The last operating plant in the United States (Publicker Industries) closed in 1977. The fermentation of cornmeal or molasses by various members of the Clostridium genus yields a mixture of 1-butanol, acetone, and ethanol in 2 % overall concentration. The products are recovered by steam distillation and then fractionated. 5.2 SELECTION OF PROCESSES: Sr No Processes Parameter Catalyst Advantages/ Disadvantages 1 Cumene Oxidation Yield:- 40% Selectivity:- 90% 1)For Cumene hydroperoxide Temp:- 120 0C Pressure:- 1 atm 2) For acetone Temp:- 60-65 0C Acid catalyst like zeolite Advantage:- Valuable main product phenol Disadvantage: - 1) Higher operating cost. 2) Acetone is as a byproduct. 2 Dehydrogenation of 2-proponal Yield:- 90% Selectivity:- 98% Temp:- 300-500 0C Pressure:- 3 atm Dehydrogenation Catalyst:- ZnO, Cu Advantages:- 1) The primary advantage of this process is that the acetone produced is free from trace aromatic compounds, particularly benzene. 2) Less operating cost 3) Valuable byproduct Hydrogen which is 99% pure. 4) High Yield 3 Catalytic oxidation of Propene Yield:- 97-99% Selectivity:-92% Temp:- 140 0C Pressure:- 14 atm Palladium Chloride – Cupric Chloride Advantage:- 1) Single stage Disadvantages:- 1) High capital & operating cost. 2) Corrosion problem. 4 Oxidation of p-Di-isopropyl Benzene Yield:- 20% Temp:- 80-90 0C Sulfuric acid Disadvantage: -
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