Project Management

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PART I Introduction Von Bertalaffy (1956) defines a system as a complex of interacting elements. Rapaport defines a system as an entity which can maintain some organization in the face of change from within or without. Ryan defines a system as a set of objects or elements in interaction to achieve a specific goal. In 1936, it was first revealed by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy, a biologist. Just because he witnessed them striking parallel to each other he sensed the need for an approach to lead research in several disciplines. He guessed that if several disciplines focus their efforts and research, they would be able to make out rules and regulations which would be implemented on many systems. And that would allow researchers and doctors to…show more content…
For example, the systemic outlook allows one to move from the single firm to the entire supply chain involving many system actors firms, individuals, districts, nations, customers, markets. • Quality When it comes to quality it is essential to focus on the linkage between TQM and systems thinking. In TQM, the systemic outset of the firm is strengthened by its weight on the value of the relationships. TQM is a learning scheme: Through TQM everybody from individual to team, can learn how to learn. • Environment If the environment is the system at the macro level then the organization is the system at the micro level. In the systems theory the decision maker use attenuating and activities for the survival needed by examining the structure of supra and its own system. That is why he modifies the borders between the systems. Brownlie showed two concepts of environment: the objective and the enacted environment. In the first case, observer, external, tangible and concrete entities were corresponded by the construct environment. Whereas on the other side, the impression of an external objective gets rejected by researchers who adopt the second approach. From this approach, organizations and environment are considered as markers for model of activities that are conducted by human actions and their efforts to make sense out of these actions. For researchers using this view, it
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