Projects and Systems Theory Essay

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Projects and Systems theory
“The most pervasive intellectual tradition to project management is without doubt the systems approach”

Table of contents

PART I – THEORY 3 1. Systems theory 3 1.1. Systems definition 3 1.2. The characteristics of systems theory 3 1.3. The manifestations of systems theory 3 1.4. Systems theory principles 4 2. Systems approach to project management 4 2.1. The key terms 4 2.2. System approach to project management 5 PART II – PRACTICAL APPLICATION 6 1. Project systems description 6 1.1. Project systems description 6 1.2. Time management system 7 1.3. Cost management system 7 2. The interdependences among the project systems 8 2.1. The interdependences among
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All systems also have inputs, processor, outputs and management (Hamilton 1997).
Input is something put into a system to achieve the results, such as human resources, material, money (Hamilton 1997).
Output is the result which is produced by a system from a specific input (intended and unintended) (Hamilton 1997). For instance, an electrical utility takes on input from the environment in form of raw material, such as coal, oil, water power; and provides output in form of electricity (Yuvienco 2008).
The transformation to convert a system’s inputs to the outputs is called “process”.
People influence the conversion process through management with standards, feedback and initiator or functions for planning, organizing, directing and controlling (Hamilton 1997) 3.6.2. Sub-system
Sub-system is the part of system, is the group of elements and provides a picture of the structure of the system (Hamilton 1997). Each sub-system affects the other sub-system and the system as a whole (Vyas 2010). 3.6.3. Boundary
A boundary could be thought of as an imaginary line which determines what is inside and what is outside of a system (Tamas 1987), and which components should be treated as the parts of system (Hamilton 1997). 3.6.4. Feedback
Feedback is the reaction of the environment to the output (Vyas 2010). The information
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