Prophylactic And Non Pharmacologic Treatment Options Essay

2237 WordsDec 8, 20149 Pages
Imagine your body slowly losing the ability to remove waste. Toxins begin to build in tissues, resulting in fatigue, anorexia, insomnia, cramping, frequent urination and swollen feet and ankles. Maintaining a normal quality of life becomes difficult with trips to dialysis centers three times per week. Such is the life of those suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). This disease affects more than 10% of American adults and is the ninth leading cause of death in the United States. One of the most common comorbidities seen in these patients is secondary hyperparathyroidism, which affects more than 69% of those patients with stage three and four chronic kidney disease (CDC, 2014). Hyperparathyroidism further decreases the quality of life of CKD patients by putting them at a greater risk for osteodystrophies, such as osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa. Current treatments focus on reducing parathyroid hormone and phosphorus, while increasing serum calcium levels. Future research should look at prophylactic and non-pharmacologic treatment options, as these are currently difficult to find. This paper further explores current treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism and discusses the potential for future interventions. Pathophysiology Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disorder defined by the loss of renal function. The primary causes are hypertension and diabetes mellitus, but CKD may also be the result of lupus, chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis,
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