Pros And Cons Of Grade Retention

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Introduction
Woolfolk, Winnie and Perry (2016) define grade retention as a process of having a student repeat a grade, due to failure of proper completion. Research has shown both the positives and the negatives factors associated with grade retention, making it a highly debated topic in todays educational systems. There is an immense dispute on whether it is beneficial or detrimental for a student to be refrained form entering the next grade if they are not academically prepared. One perspective describes grade retention as a motivator for students to work harder, in order to avoid the punishment of being held back, while others view grade retention as a way of eliminating social promotion, which causes students to feel left behind as
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Wu, Hughes, and West (2010) support this statement as their research tested the psychological outcomes of grade retention on first grade children. Wu, Hughes, and West study resulted in the same beneficial outcomes as Ritzema and Shaw have mentioned.
Grade retention can also be extremely beneficial the earlier it is used. In a study conducted by Vandecandelaere, Vansteelandt, De Fraine and Van Damme (2016) explain how early grade retention is very helpful as the study conducted on retained kindergartener’s due to their math skills showed no sign of detrimental effects, and in the long-term the children caught up to there fellow peers academic level. Gray-Bobo, Goussé and Robin (2016) agrees on how the timing of treatment is very important and that grade retention in kindergarteners results in a positive effect.
Overall, grade retention provides students with more time to improve their skills, by decreasing negative factors associated with school as well as decreasing failure and the rate of school drop outs, by reducing frustration in the subject (Vandecandelaere et al., 2016). In addition, grade retention ensures that students are working hard to avoid being held back (Woolfolk et al., 2016).
Cons
Although there are numerous pros
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