The development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has increased the number of genetic children for people with fertility problems, increased risky and beneficial multiple births, and created a controversial surplus of embryos.
In Vitro Fertilisation which is most commonly known as IVF, is a complex series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child (Staff, Mayo Clinic, n.d.). IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Having a healthy baby using IVF depends on many factors some of these include the cause of infertility and age, for someone the same age as Lucy, which is 32 they have a 44% chance of falling pregnant from a single embryo (Monash IVF Group , 2017). IVF can also be time consuming, extremely expensive and invasive. There is a lot of criticism towards IVF for its ethical, political and social aspects.
The interest for unnatural pregnancy began in the early 1800s when John Hunter, a Scottish surgeon inseminated a woman with her husband’s sperm. Due to this incidence, later in the late 1800s, the idea for sperm donation sprouted. From there on, the curiosity for other ways to succeed in unnatural pregnancies devolved rapidly. One of these ways was the In Vitro
“The unexamined life is not worth living.” With these words, Socrates stated the creed of reflective men and women and set the task for ethics: to seek, with the help of reason, a consistent and defensible approach to life and its moral dilemmas (Walters 22). Ethical inquiry is important to us when we are unsure of the direction in which we are heading. “New philosophy calls all in doubt,” wrote John Donne in the wake of the Copernican Revolution and of Charles I’s violent death, suggesting that new thoughts had challenged old practices (Donne). Today, new practices in the biomedical sciences are challenging old thoughts: “New medicine calls all in doubt” (Walters 22).
What are some disadvantages or risks involved with in-vitro fertilisation? Unfortunately with the procedure of In-Vitro fertilisation success is not guaranteed, in fact less than 50% of procedures ultimately result in pregnancies. Obviously because it is an operative procedure there is always the risk of infection and/or haemorrhage. Another risk associated with IVF is OHHS or Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome: This is when the ovaries are stimulated through the use of medications to make multiple eggs in which your ovaries can become swollen and painful. The use of frozen embryos during IVF, however, may slightly increase the risk of miscarriage. About 2 to 5 percent of women who use IVF may experience an ectopic pregnancy; This is when the fertilised egg implants outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. The fertilised egg can’t survive outside the uterus, and there 's no way to continue the pregnancy. Although not considered a risk the use of IVF can be financially, physically and emotionally draining. The emotional stress will negatively effect your physical health, and cause strains on your relationships.
The topic of whether couples should undergo the usage of various reproductive technologies, especially IVF, for purposes such as selecting the gender of their unborn baby, is an intense ongoing debate. In-vitro fertilisation or for short IVF, was made available in the late 1970’s, in order to assist women who encountered certain forms of infertility that prevented them to give birth and bear children (George, 2005). There are currently various arguments for the use of IVF in choosing the sex of an unborn baby, which include the practical and biological reasons whereas arguments against the usage of IVF involve social and ethical reasons.
One important medical discovery that has affected the lives of so many people is insulin. First isolated by scientists from the University of Toronto, insulin is the life-saving hormone used to control blood sugar. For diabetics who are either missing this hormone or unable to produce it in a way their body can regulate, the development of artificial insulin was and continues to be transformative. The discovery of insulin has meant the difference between life and death for many of those suffering from diabetes and therefore, has largely advanced modern medicine as well as affected the lives of countless diabetics and their loved ones. Another substantial medical advancement that has become extraordinarily prominent is in-vitro fertilization. Initially introduced by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards in the 1970s to treat female infertility caused by damaged or blocked fallopian tubes, in-vitro fertilization, or IVF, has given hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility. This advancement has proven to be extremely important to many people, especially to couples who wish to conceive their own children and experience pregnancy and childbirth. While like any medical procedure that interferes with natural childbirth, IVF is controversial. Nonetheless, it has proven to be a truly amazing breakthrough in science that has drastically changed the lives of so many previously childless
Jennifer Rosenberg on about.com (n.d.), had stated, “On July 254, 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first successful ‘test-tube’ baby was born in Great Britain.” This was advancement in the medical history for women everywhere who had difficulty getting pregnant; this medical breakthrough, known as In-vitro fertilization, or IVF, since Louise Joy Brown’s birth had only grown in ease and the amount of people that use this technology is at an all-time high. The CDC (2014) stated on their website that, “Number of women ages 15-44 who have ever used infertility services: 7.4 million.” This is a massive number of people that use this service. In-vitro fertilization’s advancement in medical technology allows people to have children despite
In many cases natural conception, where the sperm from the male meets the matured female egg fails to work – the female does not get pregnant. Often after multiple failed attempts In-virto (IVF) is a viable option in order for a successful pregnancy to take place. The process of IVF involves an egg or multiple eggs from the woman’s ovaries and then fertilised by their male partners sperm in a laboratory. The fertilised egg, which should now have become a embryo is then transferred back into the woman’s womb to develop and grow. Any remaining eggs can then be frozen for future use. 1 In some cases during the process of IVF, multiple factors can lead to a couple to opt for the additional treatment of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). PGD is the process of removing a cell from a IVF embryo to test for a specific genetic condition (passed on my either parent) due to chromosomal abnormalities (i.e. cystic fibrosis) prior to it been transferred back in to the woman’s uterus for pregnancy. The process of PGD increases the chance of producing a healthy baby from the eggs produced during IVF. 2
Since 1978 the first child was born outside a woman’s body through Reproduction Technology (IVF), her name was Louis Brown in England. Reproductive medicine and the test-tube baby has been highly advertized in the western world. This technology is “miracle cure” for infertility (Klein 1)
In the long run, Catholic’s disagreed with IVF which began to spark controversy for multiple reasons. They considered IVF inherently wrong because it was unnatural, also saw it as an attempt by scientists to “take the Lord’s work into their own hands,” in the words of Pope Pius XII and replaced it with the divinely ordained means of making life with a technological process. God commanded our first parents to "Be fertile and multiply" (Genesis 1:28). Why? God Himself is fertile. Love always overflows into life. When the first mother brought forth the first child, she exclaimed, "I have brought forth a man with the help of the Lord" (Genesis 4:1). The help of the Lord is essential, for He has dominion over human life and is its origin. Parents
With in vitro fertilization, there is less of a need to perform surgery on women’s fallopian tubes. As in vitro fertilization continues to advance, the procedure will become more successful and less invasive as a result.
Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse (six months if the woman is over the age 35) or the inability to carry a pregnancy to live birth. In the United States, 7.4 million women have been stricken with the disease. 1 To resolve this issue, potential parents look for other options to add to their growing family. Gestational surrogacy is the last resort for many of these families. It uses a process known as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) to create an embryo using the ova/eggs from the prospective mother and sperm from the father that is implanted in the gestational surrogate (International Assisted Reproduction Center). These surrogates are then compensated for the services which they are providing. Many would agree that this is the right thing to do because this mutual exchange is maximizing happiness for both parties. However, this is not the case for Elizabeth Anderson, a distinguished Professor of Philosophy and Women’s Studies at the University of Michigan. Anderson argues that “commercial surrogate contracts objectionably commodify children because they regard parental rights over children not as trusts to be allocated in the best interests of the child, but as lie property rights, to be allocated at the will of the parents” (Anderson 19). I strongly agree with Anderson’s argument because commercial surrogacy is strictly for the