Pros And Cons Of Payment

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In both the United States and Japan, payment comes from money from the premiums paid to insurance companies, or sickness funds in Japan. However, in Japan, government expenditures cover just over 81% of total health spending, where as in the United States, government spending covers only 46% of total health costs, almost half of what Japan is spending (CITE).
In the United States, premiums may be split between enrollees and employers, but the employer rarely pays 100% of the premiums. Patients usually must pay a co-pay at the time of the service which goes directly to the provider, and the insurance will later pay the remainder. In government insurance plans, such as Medicare and Medicaid, tax revenues are used to pay providers.
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The public health system in the United States has mainly been kept separate of the medical health care system, however the Affordable Care Act is working towards making public health more prevalent. For example, the ACA requires insurance plans to provide preventive services with no out-of-pocket costs (p 47, CITE). Since 2010 when the ACA was passed, wellness programs and employee incentivizing has been implemented as a way to encourage people to live healthier lifestyles. A Public Health Fund (PPHF) was also established, a fund used to provide public health programs and improve health in a manor to help restrain growing healthcare costs.

Health Outcomes Japan has one of the longest healthy life expectancies, as well as one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (CITE). Part of this is due to lifestyle choices, but it also makes a case for national health insurance. Since everyone is covered, everyone has access to affordable health care and can receive necessary treatment when needed. With the United States still not achieving universal health insurance, it makes sense that we would rank lower than Japan on health statistics. With people
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