Results showed that clutch temperatures were relatively stable throughout the day, and that certain temperatures were, indeed correlated with observed offspring sexes. Though this study tested the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, it provides evidence of a correlation between egg temperature and the resulting sex of offspring. Charruau also presented an important point about global warming possibly posing a threat to the ratio of female to male offspring being produced in the near future, due to the fact that alligator sexing is based solely on environmental temperatures. These disrupted ratios could ultimately lead to the extinction of certain species, which are dependent on this mode of sex
“Sex, Drugs, Disasters, and the Extinction of Dinosaurs” is written by Stephen Jay Gould, professor of geology and zoology at Harvard. This essay is one of more than a hundred articles on evolution, zoology, and paleontology published by Gould in national magazines and journals. It tells about scientific proposals for the extinction of dinosaurs – a confusing but an exciting problem that humanity tries to solve. By analyzing and describing each of the claims for the reptiles’ demise – sex, drugs, and disasters – Gould differentiates bad science from good science and explains what makes some theories silly speculations, while the other, a testable hypothesis.
Sedimentary rocks interpret dinosaur habitats through encased environmental structures of the past. Through sedimentary rocks, paleoecologists’ can examine the arranged formation of sedimentary structures to specify what type of environment the dinosaurs’ lived in. An example of a specific sedimentary rock structure can be seen through formed weathering and ripple marks by how wind and sand formed distinct patterns in the past layered sediment. These arrangements provide interpretations on the structure of the sediment and the habitat of encased fossils, through modern day comparisons
Dinosaurs ruled the earth for over 65 million years and thankfully for the human race, they became extinct. Ultimately, only a major catastrophe could completely wipe out an entire species, let alone an entity of dinosaurs and the debacle on the causes of dinosaur extinction have flooded the minds of paleontologists for centuries. Geologist and zoologist Stephen Jay Gould published “Sex, Drugs, Disasters, and the Extinction of Dinosaurs,” to compare scientific and speculative causes of dinosaur decimation. Personally, I found this passage very informational and enjoyed reading it. Gould provides three theories that capture the reader’s curiosity, allowing room for pondering in one’s mind.
Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton demonstrated many dinosaur characteristics and behaviors. The dinosaurs were fictionally characterized to appeal to the readers. By examining the dinosaur’s appearance and behaviors of dinosaurs such as the duckbilled dinosaur, velociraptor, hypsilophodontids, dilophosaurs, Triceratops, apatosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex, stegosaurs, and maiasaurs distinguished whether the evidence existed in the field of paleontology. The behaviors and characteristics of the dinosaur are divided into three factors as behaviors that were supported, not supported, and no evidence to support or refute the behavior.
There are numerous counts of evidence showing the processes of evolution and how species ultimately evolved over millions of years. One of the most compelling hypotheses behind evolution was presented by Charles Darwin with his study of the Galapagos Islands. His study showing the various different birds and their different evolutions they went through to be able to survive the changes of weather and relocation. The birds he studied had to change in order to survive, or as he simply puts it: “Survival of the Fittest”. Evolution is the changing of past organisms to diversify and have the ability to fit better in their environment and survive. Diving into the dinosaur cladogram, studies have shown that ancient dinosaurs, over hundreds of millions of years ago, evolved into our modern day birds, and not lizards as many suppose. It became apparent that there would not be enough food for a 9 ton dinosaur to consume on a daily basis forever. So evolution occurred and dinosaurs evolved to become more efficient so they could survive more effectively in their
In a study published in Cretaceous Research and conducted in October 2012 by Anthony R. Fiorillo, Thomas L. Adams and Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, evidence of dinosaurs was based on the finding of an unnamed nonmarine sedimentary package of rocks. Found in the Wrangellia Terrane and considered to be Cretaceous age, the rocks are light colored with medium grey shales and indicate a bounty of horsetails, ferns and gymnosperm wood.
The Glen Rose Trackway is a 107-million-year–old series of fossilized dinosaur footprints. Excavated from the bed of the Paluxy River in Texas, the trackway gives a picture of dinosaurs that in some ways is more striking than that offered by fossils. Collected in 1938, the smaller prints are from a theropod, a dinosaur that walked on two hind feet. The larger ones were probably left by a plant-eating sauropod, such as Apatosaurus, the hind feet of which measured 3 feet in length. Birds are dinosaurs. Just as humans are both primates and mammals because we descended from the first primate and the first mammal, birds are dinosaurs because they descended from the first theropod and the first dinosaur. Their upright stance came from the very first dinosaur.
In “Sex, Drugs, Disasters and Extinction of Dinosaurs”, Stephen Jay Gould believes that the ridicule assertion inspired by current events can often lead to well idealized, experimental, and promising discoveries. Stephen Jay Gould is employed at Harvard University in the faculty of science portraying his knowledge as a professor. Evidently, He publishes various writings and further demonstrate his research and studies on the basis of science. Gould uses three different theories such as of how scientists assumed the dinosaurs became extinct. Firstly, he states Cowles’ idea of testes dying amongst male dinosaurs, due to the high temperature fluctuations. The highly heated body must have killed off the testes making them unable to reproduce will
They took intact DNA from the dinosaur and put it in an alligator egg, they hatched the egg, and there they had a baby dinosaur. Genetic engineering is highly unpredictable, it isn’t studied carefully and bad things could happen. It is an unnatural mutation because there are so many unforeseen consequences. Anyone could tamper with the DNA and make a very deadly outcome or source. When a person messes with a dinosaurs DNA and mixes it with another DNA bad things will happen.
The extinction of the dinosaurs, absolutely a thrilling topic. In Steven Gould’s persuasive article he goes into great detail to describe the nature of science and it’s profound nature to help us in the pursuit of knowledge when used correctly. He then begins to describe three scenarios in which could’ve led to the extinction of the dinosaurs in which two while seemingly plausible at first glance are in actuality simply speculation. Thus, just like a good hypothesis using evidence to support his critiques and support of the hypotheses. Which is why I agree with Gould’s statement on how out of the three hypotheses, the extinction of the dinosaurs
Some of the dinosaur behaviors in the Jurassic Park book by Michael Crichton weren’t scientifically accurate. The dinosaur characteristics described may have been a bit skewed from what researchers believe. Not all material was made up, it was nice to see the material that was actually accurate and understandable. Since dinosaurs lived so long ago, before our time, there’s no way to actually know how they actually looked and act besides from the information gathered from fossils. One detail that stuck out to me was when scientist Dr. Wu believed that he only grew female dinosaurs to avoid breeding.
Throughout the scientific article there are many examples of factors that decrease the reliability of the article ‘did humans and dinosaurs co-exist’? Dr Manfred E. Kober has no degree or speciality in the evolution of Homo Genus, instead he specialises in theology with Th.M. and Th.D. degrees. This subsequently lowers his reliability as a source because he is a Theologist who believes in the theory of creation. His views may present bias as he is from the perspective that evolution does not exist – such beliefs go against the mainstream scientific views commonly accepted today. He also states that Homo Habilis and Homo erectus “Lived side by side about 1.5 million years ago in parts of Kenya’. There is no evidence that Homo Habilis
As birds, like mammals, are warm-blooded, they too are able to sustain their own body heat throughout the year. If dinosaurs were able to, as well, that would compose even more evidence in favor of dinosaurs sharing more traits in common with birds than with reptiles, as their given name, “terrible lizard”, would wrongly infer. Consequently, it seems that this discovery brings out a whole new set of questions as to how the dinosaurs truly ended up dying off at the end of the Mesozoic era, whether it be that their food supply dwindled or a combination of catastrophes that
It is widely accepted by most Paleontologist that all dinosaurs laid eggs. However, when it comes to how they cared for them and what the eggs looked like there is extremely large variety between different species. Being able to understand the differences in dinosaur eggs will lead to a better understanding of the reproduction of individual dinosaur species. The eggs themselves had to contain distinct characteristics as to give the offspring the best chance of survival. The shell of the egg needs to provide calcium to the developing skeleton, but be able to allow for gases to easily without affecting its hatching. This was achieved through pores on the surface of the shell (Horner and John 2000). As with all features the thickness was