In this report it will investigate at least three recent health education campaigns and use them to explain two models of behaviour change. The three recent health education campaigns will be ‘Smoke Free’, ‘Change4Life’ and ‘FRANK’. The two models of behaviour change will be the theory of reasoned action and the stages of change model.
The Health Belief Model is commonly used for health promotion and health education. Its’ underlying concept is that health behavior is explained by perception of the disease and the strategies available to lower its occurrence. There are four perceptions of the HBM, which are perceived seriousness, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers. In addition to that, more constructs are added to health belief model that includes motivating factor, cues to action and self-efficacy. Each of these constructs in combination or individually, could be used to determine health behavior. The HBM also provides guidelines for the program development allowing planners to address reasons for non-compliance with recommended health action. The health belief model is a process used to promote healthy behavior among individuals who may be at risk of developing adverse health outcomes. A person must gauge their perceptions of severity and susceptibility of developing a disease. Then it is essential to feel vulnerable by these perceptions. Environmental factors can play a role as well as cues to action such as media, and close friends. In order to determine that taking action will be meaningful, the benefits to change must be weighed, against the barriers to change behavior (Green & Murphy, 2014).
When considering health psychology it is important to recognise the various models it is made up of. The basis of this essay will be to take a look at the health belief model and the theory of planned behaviour, considering their historical origins, the positives and negatives of applying these approaches and examples of when they have been used. After some analysis it may offer some insight into possible improvements that could be implemented from further research. Also included will be an overview of how the models compare to each other and critical evaluation of research from this field.
This essay will answer this question by featuring an exploration of the motivational psychological and sociological influences on the perpetuation, maintenance and cessation of smoking, primarily focusing on the application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) to smoking, briefly discussing the roles personality and self-efficacy play in influencing individuals’ attitudes towards smoking. The sociological aspect of this essay will examine how social factors impact individuals’ smoking behaviour, emphasising the role of gender, with reference to the Social–Learning Theory (SLT).
The elaboration likelihood model suggests that if a smoker has the motivation and ability to process this information, provided by the American Lung Association on the negative effects of smoking, as an important issue that exposes their message in containing relevant arguments, then that smoker is more likely to invest in the central processing of the arguments with cognitive elaboration of the content to advance their decision on quitting to smoke. The arguments would be the hundreds of studies that conclude that smoking harms nearly every organ and organ system in the human body. Smoking is the leading cause of cancer thus diminishing a person’s overall health and is linked to the cause of cancers such as lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, cervix, colon, rectum, and also acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking also causes heart disease, stroke, a balloon-like bulge in an artery in the chest known as aortic aneurysm, chronic
Psychology is defined as the study of the human mind and mental status in order to predict and also explain aspects of human behaviour. In regards to the behaviour concerning addiction, tobacco use is considered the most highly used (and abused) legal substance nationwide. It also has the highest leading risk factors causing considerable rates in morbidity and mortality and several types of cancer, respiratory disease and heart disease; relating to why promoting behavioural change (through aspects of psychology) is considered so imperative in today 's healthcare environment. In addition, the health promotion source that this essay will be examining is the National Tobacco Campaign, aimed at altering smoking behaviours, plus the associated advertisement strategies used, and lastly the psychological theories associated.
Scenario: Matthew Joseph is a Freshman in college and he smokes two packs of cigarettes a week. Matthew’s great-grandfather, who was a solider in WW2 died from lung cancer and his farther as well as his uncle smoke habitually and have trouble breathing from time to time. Matthew says that he is aware of the deadly effects of cigarettes but he cannot stop because it keeps him from smoking marijuana. Matthew works at the local Bucee’s gas station to help pay for is car and phone bills. Matthew’s job does monthly drug testing for marijuana, cocaine, and other types of paraphernalia. Matthew states that “If smoking cigarettes allows me to keep my job and pay my bills then I want stop no matter how dangerous they are.”
Both the health belief model (HBM) and theories of reasoned action/planned behavior (TRA/TPB) are two model that has their root from psychology. Both models rely on social cognition as a mechanism to change individuals’ behaviors. Opponent criticizes the models for being unable to target social influence outside of an individual and overlook difference between target audiences.
The Health Belief Model (HBM) of health behaviour change was originally developed in the 1950s in order to understand and explain why vaccination and screening programs being implemented at the time were not meeting with success (Edberg 2007). It was later extended to account for preventive health actions and illness behaviours (Roden 2004). Succinctly, it suggests that behaviour change is influenced by an individuals’ assessment of the benefits and achievability of the change versus the cost of it (Naidoo and Wills 2000).
The Health Belief Model (HBM) “postulates a person’s perception of disease threat and benefits of taking action will predetermine taking action” (Rivers, 2009). The HBM is used to determine the African American male understanding of prostate
In the 1950’s the health belief model (HBM) was introduced to explain why people who are healthy, continue to participate in activities that keep them free of illness; while others neglect to be involved with healthy activities (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2015). PubMed was used to find this article with the limitations of an article written in the last five years, humans, and English; the Mesh words used was health belief model. The article Applying the health belief model to college students’ health behavior, written by Kim, Ahn, and No, in 2012, reviews the study done to explain the use of HBM on college students and healthy students. This paper will discuss the use of the health belief model, in college students, to determine if their knowledge of nutrition will affect their healthy behaviors.
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first theories of health behavior. It was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Services to better understand the widespread failure of tuberculosis screening programs. Today it continues to be one of the most widely used theories. Research studies use it to explain and predict health behaviors seen in individuals. There is a broad range of health behaviors and subject populations that it is applied in. The concepts in the model involve perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals being studied create an understanding of their
Who is our future and why do they matter? Children are the future and they matter because they are the next generation of leaders that will take care of the nation. Every child is different and every child has something they can contribute to our growing society. Our society is growing in population size but also waist size. Children’s health has always been something that I feel very passionate about and knowing that childhood obesity is a growing trend is really scary to me. Childhood obesity can lead to many future issues health wise but also self-esteem issues as well. Working with children and children’s health would be a great thing for me to do because I feel that since children are the future they deserve the healthiest start they can receive. We need to encourage our future to eat right and be active.
The review of literature section will define diabetes and prediabetes, identify the prevalence and major risk factors for diabetes, and present behavioral changes that can reduced the risk of developing diabetes. This section discusses the types of presentations and teaching methods that have been utilized in diabetes prevention and the health belief model. The final paragraphs in the review of literature present the learning theory and delivery method of instructional designs, which are ideal for a diabetes prevention program.