Prosocial Behavior And Prosocial Behaviors

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Prosocial behavior may take different forms, including, e.g., helping, sharing, giving, and comforting (Bierhoff, 2002). For instance, when confronted with the misfortune of someone, we might want to change the negative emotional state of that person so that he/she can feels better. This goal can be achieved by conducting behavior that is directly related to the problem (e.g., offering a solution), attempting to remove the misfortune by sharing or giving objects, or comforting the person either verbally or physically (e.g. hugging, patting) (Friedlmeier, 1996; Staub, 1979; Trommdorff, Friedlmeier, & Mayer, 2007; Whiting & Whiting, 1975). Prosocial behaviors can be differentiate based on the source of initiation of a prosocial act which are requested and spontaneous prosocial behavior (Eisenberg, Cameron, & Tryon, 1984). Those prosocial behaviors that occur without the person being requested, verbally or nonverbally, are called spontaneous prosocial behaviors (Eisenberg, Pasternack, Cameron, & Tryon, 1984). In contrast, requested prosocial behaviors are defined as prosocial actions in response to others’ verbal or nonverbal request (Eisenberg et al., 1984). Even though spontaneous prosocial behaviors often occur as the response to situational cues that indicate other person’s need, those acts are self-initiated (Eisenberg et al., 1984). Requested prosocial behaviors, in contrast, are other-initiated and involve compliance with recipient’s or a third party’s request
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