Prostate Cancer : The Most Common Cancer

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Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and it is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men according to the American Cancer Society(ACS) ( 2016). Older age is the strongest risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. Approximately 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime (ACS, 2016). There are more than 2.9 million prostate cancer survivors in the United States (ACS, 2016). The risk of dying from prostate cancer is 2.9 percent, with seventy percent of deaths occurring after age 75(ACS, 2016; Howlader, Krapcho, Neyman,Aminou et al, 2011). The use of the prostate-specific antigen testing transformed prostate cancer screening in the 1990’s (Up to date) . PSA screening for prostate…show more content…
Many studies have been conducted to evaluate prostate screening. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, which NCI conducted to establish whether certain screening tests can help reduce the numbers of deaths from several common cancers. In the prostate section of the trial, the PSA test and digital rectal exam(DRE) were evaluated for their ability to decrease a man’s chances of dying from prostate cancer. PLCO trial randomly assigned 76,685 men aged 55 to 74 years to annual PSA screening for 6 years (and concomitant digital rectal examination for 4 years) or to usual care (Adroile, Crawford, Grubb et al, 2012). It used a PSA cutoff of 4.0 μg/L. Diagnostic follow-up for positive screening test results and treatment choices were made by the participant and his personal physician; 90% of men with prostate cancer diagnoses received active treatment (surgery, radiation, hormonal therapy, or some combination(Adroile, Crawford, Grubb et al, 2012). After 7 years (complete follow-up), a nonstatistically significant trend toward increased prostate cancer mortality was seen in the screened group (RR, 1.14 [CI, 0.75 to 1.70]) compared with men in the control group (Andriole, Crawford Grubb et al., 2009). The PLCO
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