Protein Essay

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Proteins are widely used in the food industry as foaming and emulsifying agents (Wilde et al. 2004). They stabilize oil-in-water emulsions by forming an interfacial membrane where the adsorbed proteins unfold and rearrange their secondary and tertiary structures to expose hydrophobic residues to the hydrophobic phase (MacRitchie, 1978). Plant proteins are low cost, non-toxic, natural, biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In recent years, plant proteins have drawn increasing attention from the food and pharmaceutical industries as an alternative to animal proteins due to increased consumer concerns over the safety of animal-derived products (e.g., prion diseases) (Liu et al., 2010). Among plant proteins, soybean proteins are the…show more content…
Among the chemical treatments, pH-shifting is a relatively new method that adjusts the pH of a protein solution to extreme basic or acidic conditions to unfold the protein, followed by changing the pH back to neutral to refold the protein. This unfolding-refolding process has been reported to effectively modify the protein functional properties (Jiang et al., 2010, Lee et al., 2016). High intensity ultrasound or power ultrasound refer to sonic waves that are at frequencies higher than sound audible to the human ear, with sound intensities in the range of 0.1-1 W/cm2 (Feng and Yang, 2011). The mode of action of ultrasound-induced protein-structure modification is often attributed to acoustic cavitation. The physical forces produced by cavitation, such as shear forces produced by micro-streaming and normal impingement from the water jets at the solid-liquid interfaces, help to break down the protein particles or aggregates in dispersions (Lee et al., 2016). Conventional ultrasonic modification of protein functionality is performed at relatively low cavitation intensities. Consequently, a relatively long treatment time, i.e. 15-30 min for soy proteins (Hu et al., 2013) is required to produce meaningful changes in protein structures. There is a

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