Protein Synthesis and Transcription

Decent Essays
Beadle and Tatum’s experiment and their “one gene one enzyme” hypothesis showed that the production of one protein is dependent on one gene.
Francis Crick originated the idea of the central dogma. It states that biological information can only flow in one direction: from DNA to RNA to a protein.
The three key types of RNA that are involved in protein synthesis are mRNA (messenger RNA), rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and tRNA (transfer RNA). The way I learned to remember the functions of these three is the same way it’s shown on the estrellamountain website. mRNA is like the blueprint of a construction site with its copy of the genetic information of DNA, rRNA is like the construction site where the protein is made, and tRNA is like the delivery truck that brings amino acids to where they need to be at the right time. Transcription is when RNA is formed by using an enzyme called RNA polymerase to copy a strand of DNA. Before it can begin, a protein called a transcription factor has to bind to the promoter (a region in the DNA that identifies where a gene starts, where it’s supposed to be copied, and in what direction). Then, the polymerase binds to these two things (promoter & transcription factor) before it unwinds the template strand of DNA between the promoter and the terminator. The RNA polymerase copies the template strand of DNA by matching the original nucleotides with their complementary base pairs - the only difference is that instead of adenine being matched with thymine,
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