Proteins Are Essential Components Of All Living Organisms

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Proteins are vital components of all living organisms. These macromolecules are identified as large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids. There are twenty different amino acids that can be used to create various types of proteins. Specific sequences of amino acids in a chain is determined by DNA coding of the cell. An amino acid’s sequence is essential since it determines the overall structure and function of a protein. There are several different types of proteins such as enzymes, transport, storage, signal, structural, motor, receptor, gene regulatory, and special type/purpose proteins. Proteins also take part in biological processes, including cell growth, defense, movement, and regulation of organs. Proteins come in many shapes and sizes. There is no “one size fits all” when it comes to these macromolecules. Therefore, structure directly influences the function a protein performs. There are four structural levels of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary). The primary structure of proteins is characterized by their unique amino acid sequence which is determined by DNA and held together by peptide bonds. There is a great diversity among the primary level however, there is no branching. In the secondary level there is repeated folding of the polypeptide chain and take the form of an alpha helix sheet or a beta pleated sheet. The next level of proteins is the tertiary level. Here there is a full 3D conformation formed by an entire

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