To help with the quick admission, intranasal administration is a convenience to those who have to administer Naloxone because intranasal Naloxone has a preset dosage. While intranasal Naloxone is easier to administer, intravenous and intramuscular Naloxone administrators have a choice on the dose to give. Advanced EMTs have enough knowledge to choose the dose of Naloxone to give the patient to keep the patient alive. Intranasal was not approved until November of 2015 when the FDA approved a highly concentrated spray form of Naloxone (Strang et al. 576). Intranasal administration only allows one dose to be given compared to Intravenous administration which allows a more adjusted dosage of Naloxone to be given. According to Ott, an
Lowering Opioid Overdose Fatalities by Making Naloxone Available Over-the-Counter Last year there were over 64,000 reported opioid-related deaths in the United States – making it the leading cause of accidental death in people under the age of 50 in this country (Katz). Opioids, also referred to as painkillers, have become a growing problem over the past two decades particularly in rural communities all across the country where the death rates are higher per capita compared to the death rate in cities (“America’s Opioid Epidemic is Worsening”). These narcotics, such as codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, morphine and oxycodone are extremely addictive and, as a result, this silent killer has quadrupled the overdose death toll since 1999
The Effects of Methamphetamine on the Body The abuse of methamphetamine is a very serious problem in the United States. According to one national survey, approximately 10 million people in the United States have tried methamphetamine at least once (Meth Abuse and Addiction, 2010). Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. Although most of the methamphetamine used in this country comes from foreign or domestic super labs, the drug is also easily made in small clandestine laboratories, with inexpensive over the counter ingredients. Methamphetamine is commonly known as “speed,” “meth,” and “chalk.” In its smoked form it is often referred to as “ice,” “crystal,” “crank,” and “glass.” It is a
For instance, some people mix alcohol and Valium, both of which can slow breathing. The combination of the two could stop breathing altogether.4 Cough and cold medications are some of the most commonly abused over the counter medications. They contain an ingredient called dextromethorphan. However, to get to the “high” craved by people who use drugs, large quantities are needed. At high doses, dextromethorphan causes side effects similar to those of the drugs Ketamine, or PCP, by affecting similar sites to the brain. Ketamine and PCP are considered “dissociative” drugs, which make people feel disconnected from their normal selves. When taken as directed, over the counter drugs are safe and effective, but high doses can cause problems. It’s always important to read the bottle labels and take over the counter medications only as directed.4
Hallucinogens as Medicine 1 Hallucinogens as Medicine Melody Gambino Psychology 101 Hallucinogens as Medicine 2 Abstract The article discusses research on the use of hallucinogens for medical therapies applicable to cancer, drug addiction, and
Prescription drug abuse has become an epidemic in the United States especially among the youth of our country. The Partnership for a Drug Free America says that 2,500 teens a day abuse prescription drugs. Abuse of these narcotics can lead to serious mental and physical consequences. Why is this such a problem, what can we do to solve it, and how is it affecting our social lives?
Introduction Chronic intake, the delayed onset of action, drug resistance and numerous side effects force the researchers to look for the new, safe antidepressant strategies (1, 2) with rapid onset and longer time of action.
Reefer Madness Eric Schlosser To start off, the main driven idea of this book is the black market, or what they refer to as the underground and “shadow economy”. The underground has its choices and consequences as well as any other type of economic system do. But, in this case the underground can be a country’s main economy for survival such as, “In Bolivia the underground economy is responsible for an estimated 65 percent of GDP. In Nigeria it accounts for perhaps 76 percent.” (7) This type of GDP from the underground is usually found in the developing worlds. That’s not to say that we don’t have a dark side of our own in the mix. The US has been the largest competitor in the Black Market in many fields for example: Marijuana,
Ice, crank, meth, crystal, tweak, go fast otherwise known as Crystal Methamphetamine, in the United States is at epidemic levels. 1
Ketamine Description: Ketamine is a nonbarbiturate, sedative hypnotic used parenterally to provide anesthesia for short diagnostic and surgical procedures. It is also used as an inducing agent, as an adjunct to supplement low-potency anesthetics such as nitrous oxide, and as a supplement to local and regional anesthesia. Ketamine can be used concomitantly with muscle relaxants without complication because it does not provide muscle relaxation of its own. It is a fairly short-acting agent that provides a profound, rapid, dissociative state and a short recovery time.
Physostigmine is a white crystalline alkaloid extracted from the beans of Physostigma Venenosum plant. The poisonous effects of Physostigma Venenosum have been known since nineteenth century. William Freeman Daniel was the first scientist who observed the first use of calabar beans. He traveled to Africa with a exploring discovering mission. Somehow, he ended up at the Old Calabar near the Niger river. He observed the people, the culture, they way of life that they were lived in, and government. He documented everything that he saw at the Old Calabar. Interestingly, he noticed that justice system was harsh. The documented that court was composed of the king and several chiefs and Calabar beans were used as a justice system.
The medical use of amphetamines was common in the 1950/60's when they were used to help cure depression and to help the user lose weight. An amphetamine is a drug that is a stimulant to the central nervous system. Amphetamines are colorless and may be inhaled, injected, or swallowed. Amphetamines are also used non-medically to avoid sleep, improve athletic performance, or to counter the effects of depressant drugs. Amphetamines are addictive. Because of this, when the user discontinues use or reduces the amount that they use, withdrawal symptoms may occur. Some withdrawal symptoms are as follows: severe exhaustion, deep sleep lasting from 24 to 48 hours, psychotic reaction, extreme hunger, deep depression, anxiety reactions, and long but
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. A normal blood pressure is 120/80. A blood pressure reading higher or equal to 140/90 is considered abnormally high. Elevated blood pressure means your heart is working harder than normal, putting both your heart and arteries under great strain. High
Hallucinogen While many drugs speed up or depress the central nervous system, there is a class of drugs that distorts how we feel, hear, see, smell, taste, and think. Called hallucinogens because users often hallucinate, or experience nonexistent sensations, these drugs are also known as psychedelic, or mind-bending, drugs. Some hallucinogens come from natural sources; others are made in laboratories. Examples of natural hallucinogens are mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, and marijuana. Mescaline, which has been used by American Indians in religious ceremonies, comes from the peyote cactus. Psilocybin, also used by the Indians and believed to have supernatural powers, is found in about 20 varieties of mushrooms. Once ingested, psilocybin is The effects of hallucinogens on the body are unpredictable. They depend on the amount taken and the user's personality, mood, expectations, and surroundings. Although hallucinogens do not produce a physical addiction, users do develop a tolerance, so that increasing amounts must be taken to achieve the same effect. Psychological dependence on hallucinogens is well documented. It appears that each drug carries its own risks. For example, unlike hallucinogens such as LSD and synthetics such as DOM that consist of a single chemical, marijuana has been found to contain more than 400 separate substances. These substances are in turn broken down in the body into a great many more
Throughout the history of the human species, we have been always wanted to know three basic questions: why we are here, where did we come from, and where do we go after this life? Whether we were created from an omnipotent being as in many religions, we happened by chance