The definitions have progressed from tolerance or withdrawal symptoms from a specific drug to chronic intoxication, continued use with increased dosage, dependence, and damaging effects to user (Reinarman 2005). Both of these definitions proved to be too restrictive because all drugs do not have the same effects on every user. The current definition used by physicians and the criminal justice system is based on seven criteria (Reinarman 2005). The constant evolution of how the professional world views drug dependence mirrors society’s change in the understanding of addiction. Historically, “the drink” was viewed as the devil and drugs were often thought to be the cause of many criminal acts (Schneider 2003). After the medicalization of addiction and dawn of decriminalization of drug abuse, public opinion of deviant alcohol and drug use has changed. For the family unit, it is much simpler to accept and approach treatment for addiction if it is classified as a medical disease. In society, drug users can be framed as patients instead of criminals based on current standards. By looking at addiction as a treatable set of signs and symptoms instead of holding the individual accountable for actions they committed while intoxicated, the disease concept releases a lot of the stigma that goes along with
Those incarcerated today are not given the chance to change their behavior patterns, especially when it is in regard to drug addiction. The criminal justice system in general does not consider drug abuse as anything but a crime and does not think about treating the disease of addiction in order to reduce or eliminate the crimes that come as a
John Wallace the author of Chapters two and three of Practical Approaches to Alcoholism Psychotherapy indicated that there is no systematic and specific theory of alcoholism. The purpose of chapter two is to “develop a theory of therapy specific to alcoholism, a theory that takes into account the nature of the disease, the characteristics of the client and the time- dependent nature of intelligent therapeutic intervention” (Zimberg et el., Pg 20).
In most cases, one of the main objectives of courts and the sentences they impose is that of rehabilitation. This is evidenced through a growing move in favour of a more holistic approach to justice, trying to address the issues which may have led to the crime, rather than just punishing the end result. One of the prime examples of this therapeutic approach to justice is the introduction of the Drug Court. Governed by the Drug Court Act 1998, the Drug court has both Local court and District court jurisdiction, and seeks to target the causes of drug-related criminal behaviour. It achieves this by ensuring that those who go through it receive treatment for their addictions, thereby reducing their propensity to reoffend, as many crimes are motivated by the need to satisfy addictions.
Queensland drug laws have a large number of charges that may be Sixty-seven percent of people who were surveyed believe that treatment should be emphasized for those who use illegal drugs rather than punishment. Only 26 percent believe jail sentencing should be emphasized. And the percentage of people who believe that the governments should do away with minimum mandatory sentences for drug crimes increased from 47 percent in 2001 to 2014. This addresses the wider question of how to deal with drug offenders in a way that will best help them rather than being sentenced to jail. Receiving treatment rather than jail sentencing is one that has come up an amount of times in the last few months, as Queensland struggles with the best way to help drug addicts. The law from the 1970s allows judges to send addict law-breakers
This report starts off with an overview of drug courts are, then moves into the overall problem with drug control in the United States. They talk about the history and the rise in drug offenses during the 1980’s causing the prison populations to rise. When comparing the rise of drug offenses, they found it was both state and federal level. The growth of drug offenses became approximately one in every 198 persons was incarcerated. About nine years later, the first drug court was established. Courts, jails, and prisons were seeing a pattern with the number of low level repeat drug offenders and street dealers starting to cause problems with overcrowding . The drug court movement was a shift from law enforcement’s emphasis on reducing drug use.
Today, nearly 40 years later, there is plenty of scientific support and evidence to trigger a solid effort in changing policies and public opinion in reference to addiction. Evidently there is a distinction between drug crimes due to personal consumption and drug crimes due to distribution intent.
Drug Decriminalization in America There are many major factors at one point time in society, the most controversial is drug decriminalization. When the topic of drug or drug related discussion arises, many individuals would choose to ignore the topic entirely. Why not approach the topic head on? Attack the issue at its roots and refuse to give up until proven wrong. Drug decriminalization is a topic that needs to be brought to the front of discussion with politics and legislation. State and federal laws should be readjusted and in many cases removed in regards to drug policy. As a society, we need to treat the way we handle drug users and drug cases differently. Our current approach is not working anymore, and it’s time for a change. To change, everything has to change from the start.
7. Both Tiger and Kaye question the notion of drug courts as a positive, liberal alternative to imprisonment. Tiger focuses on how drug courts attempt to merge the criminalization and medicalization of addiction, which she argues are contradictory approaches to treatment (Tiger 2011, 170). She expands on this contradiction by discussing how drug courts use medical terminology in their treatment, yet include very few actual medical professionals in treatment (Ibid, 179). She notes that the main figure in drug court treatment appears to be the judge, a clear figure of criminalization that takes control of treatment (Ibid, 177). The inclusion of the judge in the treatment of what is called a disease is inherently contradictory and only serves
It is common knowledge that America has the world’s largest population of prisoners, and in 2008, a study was completed by the Pew Charitable Trusts which indicated that half of the inmates in jail and prison are serving time for nonviolent drug charges (http://www.pewstates.org/news-room/press-releases/new-pew-study-finds-36-percent-increase-in-prison-time-served-85899394970). Since the “War on Drugs” approach about forty years ago, the criminalization of the addict has done very little to address the problem of substance abuse in society. While there is no one clear cause of substance abuse, there have been patterns identified in substance abusers, that may be the underlying factors that lead to the addiction. Some of these factors include mental health and biology.
Substance abuse is an issue that touches every American, whether it is yourself, a friend or loved one or the tax paying citizen paying for an incarcerated individual’s stay in the state prison, it effects us all. Recently the conversation of legalizing marijuana has been a topic that has been addressed in a hand-full of states, however, some are still not so ready to embrace that path. Putting people in prison for the non-violent crime of drug use that costs taxpayers biennially $600.2 million does not benefit society or solve the drug use or abuse issue the individual is suffering with (drugabuse.gov). With that said, this is not a research paper on legalizing anything, but rather an alternative approach to dealing with drug abuse and the law. This approach sees substance abuse as both a crime and a medical and social issue. In this paper this paper will be discussing the history of drug prohibition. Along with why it is still considered an issue today as well as why we need to address substance abuse again, and the need for an alternative method of addressing addiction. Finally, I will explain why drug courts are the better option for the offender and society at large.
“A psychosocial evaluation is usually conducted by a social worker and is designed to help the individual's family plan for care. The social worker will discuss the emotional, physical, and financial impact of Alzheimer's disease and guide family members through an evaluation of their circumstances. Social workers can also help coordinate community services, suggest alternatives to the person's present living arrangements, and provide a list of resources and locally available services (Diagnosing).
Introduction Substance abuse and addiction have become a social problem that afflicts millions of individuals and disrupts the lives of their families and friends. Just one example reveals the extent of the problem: in the United States each year, more women and men die of smoking related lung cancer than of colon, breast and prostate cancers combined (Kola & Kruszynski, 2010). In addition to the personal impact of so much illness and early death, there are dire social costs: huge expenses for medical and social services; millions of hours lost in the workplace; elevated rates of crime associated with illicit drugs; and scores of children who are damaged by their parents’ substance abuse behavior (Lee, 2010). This paper will look at
Tia Little English 111 Graybeal November 7, 2012 Addiction: A Decision or Disease? Drug and alcohol addiction is a very serious and widespread problem in America, and across the globe. Drug addiction is a constant craving, seeking, and using of a substance, despite the negative consequences it may have on the addict or those
Drug Abusers should be Treated and not Incarcerated Compassion, counselling, empowerment, and empathy, and not incarceration, this must be the slogan for drug addicts. Imprisonment is not going to address the menacing issue of substance abuse and addiction. As a matter of fact, imprisonment is only going to increase the vulnerabilities of the addicts and is going to disrupt their psychological build up through the undue process of stigmatization. But adhering to the orthodox criminal justice system and adhering to the rigid regulations (that have been actually brought upon the criminal justice system by the means of the “War on Drugs”), law enforcement has to put the addicts behind the bars. Even though such system is hard to change, some