When comparing and contrasting the differences in the three approaches, I will review the relationship between client and counsellor. I will attempt to discover how the relationship is formed and how it is maintained during the therapeutic process. Once this has been established, I will then look at how the changes occur in the therapeutic relationship and which techniques will be used. I will compare and contrast the approaches of Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud and Albert Ellis. I will look at how their theories have impacted on the counselling processes in modern times and throughout history.
One of the key strengths of Psychoanalysis is that it is still a largely influential factor in psychology and psychiatry (Hill, 2001). Furthermore, this psychodynamic theory bases its treatment of a person as a whole, and not the underlying problem (Brewer, 2001) - thus encouraging the client to solve their own problems. This eliminates any sense of therapist dependency (Brewer, 2001).
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental health problem associated with poor quality of life, impaired functioning and increased risk of suicide. Improvement is unlikely and symptoms will remain chronic unless adequate treatment is provided. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2006a) guidelines on the management of OCD, recommend the use of psychological treatments that are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Brief treatment forms of CBT are recommended initially and more intensive forms are offered when health gain is not apparent. While the presentation of OCD can be complex, nurses can assist in the recognition and treatment of OCD through additional training or current skills (Gellatly, J., & Molloy, C., 2014)
According to the 2014 U.S. census there are approximately 318 million people residing in the United States and 1 in 5 people are diagnosed with a mental condition. As a society we have continued to evolve physically, mentally, and emotionally. With this growth, we have become better equipped to handle many situations that we once found difficult to understand and treat, such as mental conditions. With the rise in the number of people diagnosed with a mental condition, society has become more interested in studying the causes and possible treatments of these conditions. Not only are mental conditions widely studied by scientists, the entertainment industry has capitalized on our fascination and has made many others aware of the mental conditions
Psychodynamic theory focuses upon the unconscious processes which drive our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors within the person and towards their environment. In the presented case, C has had excessive demands placed upon her by her mother who expects the client to clean and cook for her while returning negative feedback and abuse. The distress that C is experiencing within herself and in her home environment is compounded by defense mechanisms she is deploying to help her cope. It could be said that C is experiencing introjection as she is unconsciously experiencing anger towards herself, evidenced in self-deprecating statements, instead of experiencing anger towards her mother for abusing and demeaning C. In addition, C may be experiencing
In Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, healing occurs when repressed thoughts and feelings are brought in to consciousness. This allows the patient to develop a stronger ego and resolve internal
Transference is often manifested as an erotic attraction towards a therapist, but can be seen in many other forms such as rage, hatred, mistrust, prettification, extreme dependence, or even placing the therapist in a god-like or guru status. When Freud initially encountered transference in his therapy with clients, he felt it was an obstacle to treatment success. But what he learned was that the analysis of the transference was actually the work that needed to be done. The focus in psychodynamic psychotherapy is, in large part, the therapist and client recognizing the transference relationship and exploring what the meaning of the relationship is. Because the transference between patient and therapist happens on an unconscious level, psychodynamic therapists who are largely concerned with a patient's unconscious material use the transference to reveal unresolved conflicts patients have with figures from their childhoods. Countertransference is defined as redirection of a therapist's feelings toward a client, or more generally as a therapist's emotional entanglement with a client. A therapist's atonement to his own countertransference is nearly as critical as his understanding of the transference. Not only does this help the therapist regulate his or her own emotions in the therapeutic relationship, but it also gives the therapist valuable insight into
The main focus of this essay has to be on the three ‘core conditions’, as utilised by the counsellor to promote a positive movement in their client’s psychology. They are intended for maintaining a focus on the client’s personal growth, and detract from the therapist’s own outside world. The three core conditions are the professional apparatus or tool-kit of the therapist, and the use of each is a skill in itself but the combined forces of all three in an effective manner requires an abundance of skill or experience. These are, as have already been mentioned, congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. They are separate skills but are intrinsically linked to each other. If used correctly, they can guide the client to a state of self-realisation, which could lead to the development of a healing process.
Joel himself is the primary element in ensuring the success of his therapy. Therefore it is vital that his therapist pay specific attention to the frame of reference Joel fosters, in addition to his utilization of inner and outer resources. Similarly, it is of upmost importance that Joel’s therapist display an empathic understanding of the experiences and worries Joel is undergoing whilst ensuring a non-judgemental and genuine perspective is communicated. It is also important for Joel’s therapist to remember that she is a guest within Joel’s world of experience (Cox, Bachkirova & Clutterbuck, 2010)
In contemporary psychology, clinicians typically make a distinction between helpful and unhelpful countertransference. Many contemporary psychologists openly share their own feelings with the people they are treating and may use countertransference, in a conscious manner, to understand differences between their own experiences and the experiences of the person in therapy.
Before Dr. Aaron T. Beck developed the idea of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), the world of psychoanalysis was concerned with “invisible psychic forces” (Smith, 2009) that to him, a young graduate of medical school “seemed soft-minded and esoteric, more a faith than a medical discipline” (Smith, 2009). This mystical ability to find a seemingly sound analysis for every condition was alluring to Beck. As he evolved as a practitioner however, he sought empirical evidence to support these evaluations. This search led him to the development of CBT and to push for psychotherapy techniques that could be evaluated based on their ability to make measurable, practical differences in the lives of patients. The development of CBT opened the field of psychoanalysis to empirically supported methods and a more rigorous approach to treating patients.
Today, the majority of counselors and therapists operate from an integrative standpoint; that is, they are open to “various ways of integrating diverse theories and techniques” (Corey, 2009b, p. 449). In fact, a survey in Psychotherapy Networker (2007) found that over 95% of respondents proclaimed to practice an integrative approach (cited in Corey, 2009b, p. 449). Corey (2009a; 2009b) explains that no one theory is comprehensive enough to attend to all aspects of the human – thought, feeling, and behavior. Therefore, in order to work with clients on all three of these levels, which Corey (2009b) asserts is necessary for the
Counter-transference can be defined as the occurrence of unresolved personal feelings of the therapist that are projected unto his or her client. Sigmund Freud coined the term counter-transference in 1910, who viewed counter-transference as the result of the client influencing unconscious feelings of the therapist (Hayes, Gelso, & Hummel, 2011).
The main difference between the Adlerian approach and the Psychoanalytic approach deals with the stance the therapist takes. In the Psychoanalytic approach , the therapist sits back and gives the client the right to express himself without any resistance. Since transference is a big issue with this approach, and the client can develop projections toward the therapist(Corey, 2013, pg. 481), so it is important for the therapist to remain neutral. Transference interpretation helps our clients by enabling them to see broad patterns of fantasies, interactions and object relations that they had never put together before(Howes, 2010). This approach goes against the philosophy of counseling because the therapist take a back seat, while the client takes the wheel and counseling should be more about an integrative approach. On the other hand the Psychoanalytic approach is based on mutual respect and the importance of goals. Focus is on identifying, exploring and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty assumptions within the persons lifestyle(Corey, 2013, pg. 481), and this approach shows the importance of a therapist who uses more guidance to identify those objectives.
Rogers himself was aware of the criticism expressed about his theories by people who prefer other therapeutic approaches. He describes in Chapter 5 in his book ‘Client-Centred Therapy, three questions raised by other viewpoints’. One of the questions from therapists with a psycho-analytical orientation is how a Person-Centred therapist deals with “transference”, which is “the repetition by the client