Psychological And Psychological Factors And The Theory Of Acculturation

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1. Theory of acculturation
1.1. Acculturation of ethnic minorities
Acculturation is the process which occurs when two cultures meet together; it leads to psychological and cultural changes (Berry, 2005). This process of changes can be going for years or generations. It should be stressed that acculturation is a dual process and the changes can be found in both cultural groups.
One of the first definitions of acculturation can be found in the work of Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, which is widely used nowadays because of the works of Berry (1990; 1997). This definition says that “acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns of either or both groups” (by Berry 1997).
Sam and Berry (2010) describe three main
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Ethnic identity is the feeling of belonging to a certain ethnic group which in case of ethnic minorities becomes the main point in the process of acculturation and especially in the question of cultural orientation. Perceived threat is the construct which describes the feeling of being threat among ethnic minorities which can be differ from the objective threat. Security is the feeling of safety. There are some evidence that positive ethnic identity with low level of perceived threat and high level of security lead to the better psychological adaptation (Sam & Berry, 2010). The visibility of the ethnic minority can be another factor that influences the process of acculturation too, Safdar and colleagues (2012) explained differences in Indian and Russian minorities in Canada by the fact that Russians are less visible minority. In case of Uzbekistan almost every ethnic group is very visible so we will not pay attention on this construct in our
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