Psychological Conditioning and Theories of Behavior

1013 Words Jan 7th, 2018 4 Pages
Behaviorism tried to diminish the emphasis on the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind, instead putting forward a new way to look at human behavior that is empirical (observed, quantified, and measured). Ivan Pavlov, for instance, was researching the digestive systems of dogs and led him to the discovery of classical condition, a way to modify behaviors using conditioned responses. Pavlov's views intrigued American John Watson, who pushed the idea forward in up through the 1950s. Building on these theories, but amending the model with the effects of punishment and reward, B.F. Skinner's work had a revolutionary effect on behaviorism, now called operant conditioning (Shiraev, 2010, pp. 246-54).
Learning Theory- Some say a logical reaction to Darwinism and the theory of natural selection, some say the logical offshoot of 19th century social science, learning theory became extremely importantly by the end of the 19th and beginning of the early 20th centuries. One of the central aspects of the continual debate on learning theory is the difference between empirical and theoretical learning. Empirical learning is a process that compares items (objects) and finds observable characteristics and similarities. Theoretical learning holds that the individual is supplied with environmental stimuli (instruction, for instance) and a set of…